The English Speaking Countries

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Autor: Dievča babuska (23)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 11.09.2015
Jazyk: Angličtina
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The English Speaking Countries

Speech

The Commonwealth of Nations - a free association of English-speaking sovereign states - grew out of the world-wide British Empire. By the 19th century Great Britain was giving independence to several of its colonies. Canada became a sovereign dominion in the year 1867. The American colonies had claimed independence from Britain already in 1776.
In 1931 the British parliament passed the Statute of Westminster which recognized several former colonies as special partners with the United Kingdom and spoke about the “British Commonwealth of Nations.“ The word British was dropped in 1946.
 

Canada

Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia). It occupies an area of 10 million square kilometers and has about 30 million inhabitants. The capital city of Canada is Ottawa, the political, cultural and economic center of the country.

Canada is a varied landscape. There are the Rocky Mountains, the Mackenzie Mountains, the Coast Mountains and other ranges running north to south. The highest peak of Canada; however is not in the Rockies, is Mt. Logan. Of course there are several important rivers. The rivers can be divided into three systems. The Atlantic system is represented by the St. Lawrence River which makes the longest waterway system in the inner part of Canada. Other rivers of the Atlantic system are the Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan. The Pacific system is made up mainly by the Columbia, the Frazer and the Yukon rivers. The Mackenzie is the backbone of another waterway system mainly in summer. It belongs to the Arctic system.

In this state there are very interesting places, for example the Great Lakes, which make up the biggest reservoir of fresh water in the world. The climate in the vast areas of Canada can’t be same everywhere. The most disagreeable climate is in the Arctic.

Canada has enormously rich sources of raw materials (for example: uranium, zinc, sulphur), big production of paper and is also one of the leading countries in agriculture (mainly in wheat). During the prewar period, Canada profited from the prosperous world economy and established itself as an industrial as well as an agriculture power. In 1931 Canada’s constitutional autonomy from Britain was confirmed with the passing of the Statute of Westminster.

Canada consists of 10 provinces and two territories (Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory). The currency in this state is Canadian dollar and the official languages are English and French but 70% people speak only English. The Canadian Parliament is composed of the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Elizabeth II., who is represented by the Governor General, the Senate and the House of Commons.

Ethnic Groups: British 28%, French 23%, Other European (German, Italian, Ukrainian, Dutch, etc.) 15%, Aboriginal 3%, other 6% (mostly from Asia, Africa), Mixed background 25%.

Religion: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 40%, Other Religions 18%.
Canada is a bilingual country and has 2 official Languages: English (59%) and French (23%). About 18% say that a different language is their ‘mother tongue“.
 

New Zealand

New Zealand is a democratic country with its own parliament. The official head of state is Elisabeth II. - The queen of England, Scotland and Wales. New Zealand was the first country in the world to give the vote to women.

New Zealand, in the South Pacific, consists of two large islands plus other smaller islands with an area of 270,000 sq km. North Island has a warm climate and there is quite a lot of volcanic activity. South Island is cooler and has a higher rainfall.

New Zealand was cut off from the rest of the land on Earth for 80 million years and has some unique animals and plants (fro example tuatara – reptile, weta – insect).

New Zealanders, who are also known as ´Kiwis´, are relaxed people who love the outdoor life. It is not surprising that New Zealand is successful at many sports. Its national sport is rugby and its team. New Zealand has beautiful landscapes. In North Island, the of Islands has lovely old forests and beautiful beaches and the Coromandel is perfect for sailing and water sports.
 

Australia

Australia is the smallest and youngest continent, with the lowest population density. It is often said that Australia lies at the edge of the world, divided from other continents by long distances. Australia is located southeast of Asia.

Its area is 7.7 million sq. k. Australia is an Island continent. Rivers that flow permanently are to be found only in the north, east, and in Tasmania. The Murray Rivers flows from New South Wales to the Indian Ocean; the second longest river is the Darling. There are three big lakes here: Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner. The Australian climate varies from warm to subtropical. Australia has summer when we have winter and vice versa.
  The animals of Australia are numerous and some of them, like the kangaroo, koala bear, dingo, platypus, Tasmanian devil or barking lizards can‘t be found elsewhere.
 
The official title is The Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It has a democratic, federal system and the head of state Is Queen Elizabeth II. represented by the Governor - General. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The Commonwealth of Australia consists of six states: New South Wales (capital Sydney), Víctoria (Melbourne), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth), Tasmanian (Hobart) and two territories: The Australian Capital Territory (a part of the country surrounding Australia‘s capital Canberra) and Northern Territory‘ (thinly populated).
 

Ayers Rock (Uluru national park)

The Uluru national park is located south-west of Alice Springs. At its center is the largest monolith in the world, Ayers rock. For its mythology and beauty it has been a magnet to visitors for years. Ayers Rock (Uluru) was named by explorer William Gosse who visited there in July, 1873, and named it after Henry Avers. The largest monolith in the world, it rises 348 meters above the surrounding plains and is near1y 9km. The rock itself is renowned for its changing colors as the light reflects from its surface at different times of the day. A climb at the western end provides access to the summit (vrchol), however it is only recommended for those of average or better fitness.
 
The British Commonwealth of Nations founded in 1926 is remain of colonial British Empire that flourished at Elizabethan and Victorian age. Present connection of the British Commonwealth is the language spoken in those countries and the same economics. The biggest one is Australia that is located on the southern hemisphere. Australia consists of 6 states and 2 territories. The surface is mostly flat; there are a lot of deserts which are surrounded by The Australian Cordilleras, the Australian Alps and the Great Dividing Range. There are only a few rivers due to deserts, the inland climate is arid, coastal is wet and moderate that's why the most of cities are concentrated on the coast. Industry is based on mining, food and textile. Australia has the great export of wool from sheep. As a result of being cut from the rest of the world Australia has many different species in wildlife as kangaroos, koala bears, emus, dingoes or eucalyptus tree from plants. From the contemporary Australia I would like to mention that the Lord of the Rings was shot on New Zealand which is an island belonging to Australia. The second English speaking country I should mention is Canada. It's the 2nd largest country in the world. It consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Not all of them are English speaking only, for instance Quebec as the biggest province is bilingual and their second official language is French. The surface is mountainous and the large part of borders with the United States is naturally made by the Great Lake district. The largest rivers are the Mackenzie, Yukon and St. Lawrence. Tundra, prairie and deep forests could be also found in Canada. Original inhabitants of Canada are Red Indians and Inuits. Then it was colonized by Europeans in 16th century and became British colony. Independence was claimed in 1867. Industry is based on mining, wood, and shipbuilding. Famous sights of Canada are British Columbia with wonderful nature and National parks. Well-known cities are Montreal and Calgary (in both the Olympic Games were held). Famous personalities of Canada are writer Stephan Leacock, singer Celine Dion and many good sportsmen and sportswomen that are doing winter sports like ice hockey or skiing.
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