Culture - anglický jazyk
Autor: babuska (25)
Typ práce: Maturita
Typ práce: Maturita
Rozsah: 1 262 slov
Počet zobrazení: 4 332
Počet zobrazení: 4 332
For me the culture is a source of certain part of knowledge and education. The most common cultural heritage after our ancestors is literature written in books, which is the first part of my speech. We can divide literature in two main parts - poetry and prose. Prose contains novels and short stories. Poetic pieces are usually divided into paragraphs. Now I would like to focus on typical novel. Long novel can be divided into volumes. Each volume should contain contents, glossary and main story divided into chapters. Instead of fiction and non-fiction books we have other types of books like manuals, encyclopedias or memoirs. Usually we have our favorite books at bookcase or we can visit a library to borrow books for a small price. Magazines and newspaper are other types of readable materials. Typical newspaper contains news related to its country or region, weather forecast, announcements, ads and sometimes supplements. Other sources of information and knowledge are radio and TV. Both are spoken as mass Medias. Television stations broadcast their scheduled programmes over satellites to cover wide areas as countries or continents. We can choose from many channels, for instance about nature, sports and science or we can watch movies. Better sense of watching movies we can experience in the cinema. Huge wide screen and louder sound can provide us great enjoyment. We can see by who the movie was directed or who wrote a screenplay. The most successful movies are awarded by Oscar prize in various categories. More serious way to see some drama is theatre. The contact of actors on a stage and auditorium is there closer. Instead of dramatic plays we can see ballet performance, musical or opera in the theater. A special kind of culture is the fine art. It was the first kind of cultural heritage that mankind invented in caves and it passed through long development. Now we can see impressive paintings on exhibitions and also we can resemble differences between periods when they were painted. Other kinds of fine arts are ceramics, sculptures or figures from clay. The last part of culture I would like to speak about is music. In the 20th century was invented a swarm of new styles that nearly broke classical music. With the development of electricity and need of better record to broadcast many new instruments and equipment for musicians were invented. I think that the main breakthrough was invention of electric guitar which resulted in various new musical families like jazz, blues, rock, metal and fusion between them. With computer in 70ties came electronic music which resulted in weak styles as techno, house or rave. My favorite styles are rock and grunge and fusion of them with others.
NewspapersThe first form of mass media started after the printing press was invented in Germany in 1450. Many copies of simple newspapers and posters were quickly printed, which could then be distributed to many people. Newspapers are still one of the most important forms of mass media.
There are two kinds:
o 1. QUALITY PAPERS (serious newspapers) that aim at (zaměřit se na) the educated reader. They contain detailed news comment, editorials, many topics written by experts in their field, the Arts and literary reviews.
USA Today, Wall Street Journal, New York limes, Washington Post, etc.
The Times, The Telegraph, The Guardian, The independent, etc.
o 2. TABLOIDS (popular newspapers) printed on sheets that are half the size of larger papers. They have a lot of gossip (drby) about famous people, etc., and not much serious news.
The National Enquirer, Star Magazine, Globe, etc.
The Daily Mirror, The Sun, The Daily Mail, the Express, etc.
RadioPrint media was the only form of mass communication until the invention of the radio in about 1914. In the US Radio became popular in America with about 60,000 radios in 1922 which grew to 10 million radios by 1929. The first radio stations were created by companies who made radios. People bought a lot of radios so the companies had enough moneey to build many radio stations and they didn‘t need advertisements. Later, when other companies wanted to start stations the only way they could pay for it was by selling advertisements. In the US, radio was a business. NPR (National Public Radio) is a nationwide non-commercial radio.
In the UK the radio was paid for by charging a yearly fee to people who owned radios. This is called noncommercial or public broadcasting. The money was given to a government company called the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
The radio stations in the UK - national (non-commercial): Radio One, Radio Two, Radio Three, Radio Four. Local radio stations: Radio Cambridgeshire and Radio Devon, etc.
Commercial radio stations: Classic FM, Pirate FM and many more broadcast in cities, especially London.
TelevisionThe next mass medium was television (TV) that started to be popular in about 1940. Broadcast TV was important because people could see images and sounds. In the US - By 1950, there were only three national stations in the US: NBC, CBS and ABC (which was smaller). Around 1990, when many people had cable TV (CATV) with many channels and many choices, channels needed to specialize, like CNN with only news or MTV with only music. Advertising started to specialize too. For example, rich people watch the Golf Channel more than poor people, so the advertisements, or ads, are produced for richer viewers on this channel. In the UK - The main broadcaster is the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Channels BBC One and Two are public broadcasting channels, paid for by license fees. Other BBC channels can be accessed through digital channels and cable. ITV (Independent Television) and Channels Four and Five are commercial stations and carry advertising.
Dancer in the darkStarring: Bjork
This movie was about women, who spent her all life trying to help her son, who was going to be blind. She was fully and entirely obsessed by a thought to prevent her son from being blind just like her. The very thought of her son’s blindness was rather unbearable. It was fairly hard to find money for an operation, but she was working pretty hard and her friends helped whatever it took. Her son didn’t understand why they didn’t have money for gifts to his birthday, but she gave all her money to small box. She needed about 20 000 dollars, so, she took a lot of overtimes indeed. She was working in a small factory.
One day she was fired. She had almost all needed money; so, she was ready to give the money to the doctor. Her son needed this operation before his 13 year’s birthday. One day she came home to give her last money to box, when she found out that the box was absolutely empty. She knew who could steal her money. It was a cup, the only man, who knew her secret. She went to him, but he didn’t want to give her money, so, she killed him, otherwise he would arrest her.
Then she gave money to hospital and the cups arrested her. She was suspected and then sentenced to the death penalty. She scarcely didn’t cry and was thoroughly reconciled with her fate. She could appeal, but it would spend all her money, so, she was executed, when she was singing a song of freedom. She knew her son was going to live normal life like everybody else.
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