Social Issues

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča babuska (23)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 12.09.2015
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 493 slov
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Social Issues


Speech
Abuse of Drugs
  Drugs are divided into legal and illegal ones. An example of a legal drug is Nicotine. It is art organic base found in tobacco. Nicotine is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Nicotine is taken either through inhalation or ingestion. It stimulates certain nerve cells, leading to feelings of alertness or relaxation. When taken in high doses, 40- 60 mg, it can be lethal.  In humans smoking is addictive and can alter one‘s mood, can cause lung or stomach cancer, can create breathing problems, and contributes to heart disease, strokes, and heart attacks.
Marijuana is art illegal drug in most countries of the world. It comes from the plant Cannabis Sativa. Over 400 different chemicals are found in Marijuana. The primary mind-altering ingredient is called THC. Hashish and hash oil are processed forms of marijuana with THC levels of up to 10 to 20 percent. Marijuana is usually smoked in cigarettes called joints or in pipes. It can also be eaten.
Other drugs are caffeine, heroin, alcohol, cocaine and glue.
 

Feminism

“Society defines a certain kind of behaviour appropriate to females and another to males. Traits traditionally attributed to men include ambition, independence, competitiveness and strength; women are considered emotional, dependent, uncompetitive and weak. Appropriate sex roles are learned in early childhood trough interaction with parents, other children, and through language, books and television. While sex roles determine the socially acceptable limits of behaviour at a given time, they have been modified over time with cultural and social changes. War, emigration, and technological developments, in particular, have been responsible for rapid and dramatic changes in sex roles.

Feminism and other movements were influential in altering some prevailing conceptions of appropriate sex roles that defined women as homemakers and mothers, and men as wage-earners and decision-makers.The Feminist movement, also called the Women‘s liberation movement, is a social movement which seeks equal rights for women, giving them equal status with men and freedom to decide their own careers and life patterns.“
 

Euthanasia

It may be refuted that euthanasia is contradictory to human rights; however, it is actually the ultimate human right. In a democratic society, the prevalent one today, everyone is endowed with the right – “pursuit of happiness.” However, to be afflicted with pain, whose only end is death not purgation as it usually is, is contradictory to this right: pain is not happiness. The possibility of death must be open, therefore, to preserve happiness.

Another reason why euthanasia must be allowed is because of dignity, or self-respect. Usually, patients with a terminal disease see everything they cherished fall apart. For example, a cancer patient who is in the last stage would feel pain so great that, when he dies, he would remember the world not full of love, but full of pain. The family would feel the same, seeing a loved one depart suffering to no prevail. Thus, to remember one’s life as dignifying, one must have the have the right for euthanasia. In conclusion, for the inalienable right, “pursuit of happiness,” and dignity, euthanasia must be supported. There might be those who say this is an abuse of life, but this is but a quantitative view of life. Euthanasia, on the other hand, focus on the quality of life. Thus, mercy killing must be allowed, for its “quality that counts.”
 
Now I would like to speak about problems that worry today's world. I'd like to start with Ecology. The activity of mankind produces a lot of rubbish and pollution which afflicts the nature, animals and also him. Acid rains caused by pollution could destroy and contaminate the vegetation. Deforestation of rain forests could result in insufficient supplies of oxygen that we breathe and to global warming. Then the Global warming could result in melting icecaps on poles, sea levels could rise and flood coastal cities and so on. The problems connected with Ecology are so complicated that I would like to jump to another social issue for instance poverty. We can see this phenomenon in developing countries in Africa or parts of Asia. Poverty is also connected with overpopulation in these countries which could lead in starvation, famine and migration of those people into high developed countries. The danger of migration is that migrating people may not be vaccinated and bring exotic diseases. Another problem which worries today's world is drugs. We can divide them into two main categories legal like alcohol, cigarettes of marihuana in some countries and illegal like cocaine, heroin and LSD. Main causes of addiction are family, unemployment, friends and depressions, effects are loss of work, prosecution then it may result in violence, poverty and various types of diseases. The most known and dangerous disease which can be transmitted by blood, intravenous use of drugs and semen is AIDS. It's the infection of immunity system that can't be cured and leads to death. Than I have the group of problems that are based on controversy of society that are disputed. First of them is Capital punishment. The question is if the justice is infallible. If not, there is a chance that will be executed an innocent man/women. It can be also misused by government to dispose uncomfortable people. The second problem that could be misused is euthanasia. Not enough organs for suffering people may be supplied from illegal use of euthanasia. The last questionable problem of this kind - cloning came with the inventions in genetics. I think that no one of us wants to obey new Hitler or Mussolini.
 

AIDS

The most dangerous civilisation’s disease is AIDS (this is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Worldwide, about 12 million people have AIDS nowadays and every day more than 200 people will probably become infected with the AIDS virus. This disease is deadly and it is the result of infection by a virus HIV (this is Human Immunodeficiency Virus). AIDS itself doesn’t kill a person, but attacks a person’s immune system, so the body cannot fight and people die.

HIV is infectious by blood. In this time there are two major ways, that people may become infected with the AIDS virus. One way is through sexual contact with an infected person and the other way is through sharing drug needles with an infected person. In the past time people were infected by blood transfusion, but nowadays it is impossible, because all the donated blood is tested. However women can infect with the AIDS virus their children, when they are pregnant. Their children can be born infected with the virus.
 

Crime

Crimes are usually classified as misdemeanour against the law. Crimes and their punishments are divided according to their importance.
A murder, the crime of killing a person, is the most horrible crime. Robbery is taking property from a person against his or her will by threatening or committing force or violence. Sometimes a robber uses a hostage. A hostage is a person taken by force to secure the taker’s demands. A burglary is the breaking and entering a house of another at night with the intent to commit a felony.

Arson

Other naturally evil crimes are rape and arson. Rape is the crime of sexual intercourse without the consent of the victim, often through force or threat of violence. In many cases, the establishment of guilt becomes difficult, particularly in cases where the victim displays no physical evidence of violence, but only one testimony against the other.
Arson is the malicious and wilful burning of the buildings, structures or vehicles of another. There are several degrees of arson, for example arson committed at night is considered more serious than arson committed in the daytime.

The person suspected of crime is taken into custody by a police officer. If the crime is serious, the case is first presented to a grand jury. While action is pending, the party charged may be released on bail. In courtroom there are jury, judge, the defender, accuser and the accused. Then they explore evidence, speak with witnesses and solve the case. If the accused is found innocent, he or she is discharged; if the accused is found guilty, the judge pronounces sentence.
 

Unemployment

Unemployment is an economic danger for every country. In our country, a lot of people are unemployed. The percentage varies from region to region and it is between 2 and 20 %. The most affected regions are in the north of Bohemia and Moravia with the heavy industry. There is no demand for coal and steel on the world markets, so thousands of workers have been made redundant. Another reason for unemployment is hundreds of companies that go bankrupt. School-leavers cannot often find a job and have to be on the dole. For most people is being out of work for a long time is humiliating depressing, and may lead to mental disorders or even suicide.
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