Washington, New York and other cities of USA

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Autor: sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 24.06.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Washington D.C. (District of Columbia) is the capital of the U.S.A and the seat of the federal government of the United States. It is situated on the Potomac River about 90 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 180sq km and has a population of 6523 000 - 70% are black and 30% are white (the metropolitan area is 3800 000). Virginia and Maryland gave their territories to be able to built Washington.   

The District of Columbia was established by the Act of Congress in 1790. The site for the capital was chosen by President Washington himself. The city was laid out by the French architect Pierre L'Enfant in the 18th century. He was helped by Thomas Jefferson, later the third president of U.S. It was the first city in the world that was planned and built as the capital and the center of government. It's conception is purely French, it has nothing characteristic for American (no skyscrapers).

The city was divided into four quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, and Southeast) with the Capitol as the center. Starting from the capitol, the streets that run from north to south have numbers, the streets from east to west are named A,B,C. It was first used as the seat of Congress in 1800.

Industry, economy    
There are no factories and industry, the Washington's principal industry has always been government (the federally owned buildings occupy 40% of the city's land). In order to be near the federal center many international and national organizations have their offices in Washington. The city is also full of lobbyists. It is the center of press too - the publications such as Washington Post of National Geografic have their headquarters here.  Pentagon is the largest single structure building in the world. In this enormous pentagonal building the Department of Defense has its seat.

Places of interest
The most important buildings in the U.S.A are found in the city. The first of them is White House - official residence of the American President. The first President to occupy this building was the second President John Adams in 1800.

The second important building is the Capitol - the seat of the Congress. The Capitol consists of the Senate Wing and the House of Representatives Wing. No building can be higher than the Capitol, that's why there are no skyscrapers.

We can see many monuments here to commemorate the outstanding US Presidents - Washington Monument - the white marble obelisk stands as the symbol of both the man and the city whose name it bears. It is the tallest in the world and it is the middle of the Mall. The Mall is a long parkland area that starts at the Capitol and extends 2 miles to the west, ending at the Washington Monument. Jefferson Memorial - the 20th century adaptation of the ancient Roman Pantheon. This monument is dominated by a bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson holding the Declaration of Independence. The Lincoln Memorial was built in classic style of a Greek temple. There are 36 columns because 36 states existed when Lincoln died. There is a majestic white statue of Abraham Lincoln seated on the chair.

Some other sights which are worth seeing are Library of Congress, Vietnam Veterans Memorial a black wall with the names of the killed or missing in the Vietnam war. The Arlington National Cemetery was first used during the civil war. It is known as the resting place of President John F. Kennedy and his brother, Robert Kennedy.

In Washington we can also find the headquarters of the FBI. Washington is also a p lace of culture and education. It has many universities such as Georgetown University, Howard University and George Washington University.

There are also many museums concentrated on the east Mall. Washington is also world famous for its parks and green spaces.

New York, the biggest city and the largest port in the USA, is spread on several islands connected by bridges. The number of its inhabitants varies and depends whenever the whole metropolitan area (18 mil.) or only the central area (7,4 mil.) is counted. The density (10 000 people / km2) is one of the highest in the world. Sometimes the city is called The Big Apple. New York covers an area of 780 km2 and have five major parts - Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island and Brooklyn. There are two important rivers in NY - the Hudson and East.

History, industry
It is not exactly known when the site of New York was first populated. The original inhabitants were Indians. The Island was bought from them by the Dutch in 1625. The original name was New Amsterdam. In 1664 the British captured the city and renamed it New York. New York was built on a plan of streets (W-E) and avenues (S-N). They have no names (except for Wall Street and Broodway). The Wall used to stand in its place - it protected the Dutch from the Indians. Because of its position on the coast of Hudson and East Rivers it soon became an important port. Today it is an industrial port and one of the most important financial, commercial and cultural centers of the world. But the city is also notorious for its crime.

Places of interest

A typical phenomenon of New York (and all major American cities) is skyscraper. They started to be built because of the lack of space and the high price of land in the city centers. The first sights to attract visitors when approaching New York from the sea are the Statue of Liberty and Manhattan Skyline. The Statue of Liberty became a symbol of both freedom and the United States itself. It also commemorate the French - American friendship - it was given by the people of France on a occasion of the 100th anniversary of American Independence. Manhattan Skyline is a large number of skyscrapers on a small area.

The US financial world is centered around the Wall Street. The World Trade Center is a complex of seven building dominated by the 110 storey Twin Towers. They are the second highest buildings in the world (after the Sears Tower in Chicago). Some other interesting places are - St. Pauls Chappel - the oldest church in New York, Medison Square - named in memory of James Medison, the Empire State Building, which used to be the tallest building in New York, Chrysler Building - the seat of Chrysler automobile company, Times Square where people traditionaly welcome the New Year.

Central park is largest of all New York's parks. It is dangerous to go after dark and it is the place where also famous rock concerts take place.


LOS ANGELES - the second largest city in the USA. There we can find famous film center Hollywood and luxurious quaters. Each April the America Film Academy awards Oscars for the best film of the year. There is also the biggest ZOO in the world and LA university called California Technology Institute.

CHICAGO - lies on the banks of Lake Michigan. There were build the first skyscraper and the highest skyscraper in USA Sears Tower (438m). O'Hare Airport is the busiest airport in USA. Chicago is also center of steel and iron industry and an important transport center.

PHILADELPHIA - is one of the oldest cities in the USA. It used to be the first national capitol and the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed there. Now it is the center of chemical industry.
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