The role of mass media in our life

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 26.06.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 028 slov
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Mass media have a great importance in our society. All people around the world are curios  and want to be informed about the world’s events. That’s the reason they read newspapers, listen to the radio or watch television.

Press
Press is the oldest way how to distribute information. It can be divided into some groups. Most commons are newspapers, that are issued daily. Second group are magazines and they are issued weekly, monthly or in another period.

Newspapers in Britain are published on every day except Sunday. On Sunday are published special Sunday newspapers, that are other one than the dailies. British people are the world’s third biggest newspaper buyers - nearly 80% of all households buy a copy of one of the main national newspapers every day. Some people offer papers to be delivered into house. This work is made by a teenager, that wants to earn a bit of extra pocket money.
The Daily papers can be divided into two large and different groups. Firsts are broadsheets (the quality press) and seconds are tabloids (popular press). The only common thing for these types on papers is Sport and weather forecast that are almost the same.

The broadsheets are papers, in which is only serious information. These newspapers are mainly old, some with more than hundred year tradition. They contain political, industrial and culture news and they devote pages to finance matters and international news. The articles are mostly long and they have not large headlines. Most important daily broadsheets are: The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Independent, The Times and The Financial Times (listed in order to daily circulation - The Daily Telegraph sells more than twice as many copies as any of the other broadsheets). Most important Sunday broadsheets are: The Sunday Times, The Sunday Telegraph, The Observer and The Independent on Sunday (listed in order to daily circulation).
The tabloids are newer than the broadsheets - the first one The Daily Mail was established in 1896. They are printed on twice smaller papers than broadsheets and they use colours.

Word ‘tabloid’ was originally a pharmaceutical term, used for substances which were compressed into pills. So tabloids try to say information in minimal words. They contain sensational stories about famous people. The tabloids use large headlines and many pictures. The daily tabloids are: The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, The Star and the Today (listed in order to daily circulation). The Sunday tabloids are: The News of the World, The Sunday Mirror, The People, The Mail on Sunday, The Sunday Express and The Sunday Sport (listed in order to daily circulation).

The Sunday newspapers sell slightly more copies than the national dailies and are thicker. Some of them have six or more sections making up total of well over 200 pages. There is about ten Sunday papers in Britain. They are made by other people than daily papers, but some of them are published by same company.

There are more than 1500 daily newspapers in the USA. There are over 1600 daily newspapers, that are mostly regional, but same are distributed almost all over the States. The most important whole country papers are The USA Today - the are read by more than 6.000.000 people a day. All American dailies have circulation about 64 million - one paper for every four inhabitants of America. There is also large number of magazines - 7623 weeklies and more than 100.000 specialised magazines.

In USA are also tabloids and broadsheets as in Britain. Most important tabloid is The New York Post and the most important broadsheets are The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times or The Chicago Tribune.

In Czech Republic there is also many newspapers and magazines. The most popular broadsheet are Mladá Fronta DNES and Lidové Noviny. The most popular and in fact the only tabloid is Blesk. Here is not so different size of newspapers as in Britain, but content is almost the same. In last time there is many new  magazines for women.

Radio & television

Majority of people can not imagine life without this massmediums. This programmes are spread all over the world and foreign broadcast can be found in many countries. People use radio and television to get the latest news from the world.

Broadcasting in Britain is controlled by  the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Independent Broadcasting Authority. The BBC is financed by the government, but the private stations controlled by the IBA get money from advertisement. The BBC has two TV channels - BBC1 and BBC2. BBC1 has the programme for public interest as entertainment, sport and commentaries on current affairs. BBC2 has more serious news. The exists many of commercial TV-companies that are intent on  special group of people - there also exists one television programme, that shows only cricket, very popular British sport.
National radio is controlled by BBC. Listeners can choose from four stations, that includes news, sports, pop music, drama, etc… In Great Britain there are many local stations (private or controlled by the BBC).

In the USA there is very popular television. There exists more than 1300 commercial and 370 non-commercial television programmes. Over 98% of American households have the television set. There are three big private national networks: ABC, NBC and CBS.  Each day at 6 o’clock sit plenty of people in front of television and follow one of many soap operas, that are broadcasted on that time.

There is no national radio station in the USA, but every large city has a lot of independent stations. There are about 10.000 of commercial and 1500 non-commercial stations.

In Czech Republic in not so many television stations as in other countries. Here are four all-area stations: state ÈT1 and ÈT2 and private NOVA and PRIMA. Czech Television (ÈT) gets money from people by charges. NOVA and PRIMA get their money only from advertisement.
Czech radio broadcasting is ensured  by Czech Radio (ÈRo). It has six stations and they have different programme. ÈRo1-Radiožurnál is mostly reporting stations. Other broadcast for example classical music, or other programmes specially prepared for some group of people.
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