Man and society – Positive and negative influence
Typ práce: Referát
Počet zobrazení: 2 413
Man and society
Humans, from the very beginning, were not able to live on their own and so started to form a bigger group. These organized groups created their own system of laws and accepted behaviour which can be defined as society. Rules, values and ethics are the basis of every good society. It is very important to follow these principles. Rules and conventions concern appearance (how to dress for a particular occasion) and behaviour (greetings, addressing people or topics of conversations).
Positive and negative influence
The society is not based just on what is polite and impolite, but even on what is moral and immoral. There are a lot of things that influence us both in the positive as well as in the negative way. The examples of positive influence can be found in our families, at school, society etc.; we can learn that we are able to volunteer, to help other people when natural disaster comes or when one loses his job, a family member.
However, there is much more of the negative influence around us. Copying TV antiheroes, taking drugs, being just selfish and mean it all has negative effect on individuals as well as society itself. For each crime there exists some punishment; to stop the criminality we have the police, detectives and laws, prisons etc.
Etiquette: (protocol) describes formal rules, traditions, manners and behaviour used in a certain society and culture. It tells us • how to communicate with each other,
- to show our respect to others.
- to greet people with respect
- to offer hospitality to guests
- to wear appropriate clothes
- to listen to speakers
- to offer assistance if needed
- to eat neatly
- to avoid disturbing others with loud music
- to arrive on time
- to respond to invitations promptly
We learn moral rules and principles all our life. Our parents raise us up, they tell us what is polite and impolite, what we should do... Our family is where our behaviour is formed. If parents speak rudely, children will imitate their models. Small things such as talking to people with respect, listening to them, showing empathy, praising the others for their achievements, should be common in every family.
Examples: cleaning up after oneself, saying "please" and "thank you" - as a sign of respect, greeting other people, not interrupting other people when they are speaking, not calling somebody names...
Rules of social behaviour are also taught at school. At most schools children can attend the classes of religion or ethics. They both try to teach children how to differentiate between good and evil, between what is moral and immoral. Some rules at school:
- be at school on time
- don't talk and whisper during the lessons
- don't cheat
- don't play truant, don't skip classes
- don't fight
- don't eat or drink during the lessons
- don't leave school until noon
- don't smoke
- stand up when a teacher enters the classroom
- don't put your feet on the table, chair
- don't use mobiles, electronic devices...
There are certain rules how to behave in special places (theatre, cinema, church):
- turn off mobiles
- don't be late
- don't eat or drink during the performances
- don't use cameras, use the restroom during the intermission,
- wear formal clothes
- take off a hat, cap when entering a church (men)
- wear knee-length skirts for business and diplomacy (women)
- wear hats and gloves when meeting the Pope or the Queen...
Rules of greeting other people:
- younger people greet the older first
- man greets woman first
- children greet adults first.
People in the USA are much less formal in greetings. Congratulations also show respect or show that we like somebody, that we want to share somebody´s happiness or important moments in their lives. We congratulate to people when they have birthdays, when they finish schools, when they achieve some success, ...
There are different styles of dining: (European style is where you keep the knife in your right hand and eat with your fork in the left). When you've finished with the meal place the fork and knife side by side on the plate.
Examples: • Clean and spotless tablecloth should be spread on the table.
• On the table there must be a knife, a spoon, a fork and glasses.
• Books, magazines, newspaper shouldn't be on the table
• Don’t gobble.
• You shouldn’t put your elbows on the table.
• You shouldn’t speak during the eating.
• You shouldn’t eat with your fingers.
• You shouldn’t talk with your mouth full (of food).
• You shouldn’t pick your teeth with your fingers.
• You shouldn’t put your knife into your mouth and lick it.
• You should eat smaller quantity of food.
• You should use a napkin.
- Be polite (say Please and Thank you)
Good manners in general:
- shake hands
- exchange business cards during introductions
- don't talk loudly in public
- don't spit
- cover your mouth when yawning, coughing
- stand in a line, don't skip the queue
- don't stare at somebody
- give a gift to a host
- send a thank-you note
- tip a waiter
- don't use offensive language, do not make any rude comments
- do not keep a hand in your pocket when you are being introduced to somebody…
Problems in society: abortion, euthanasia, death penalty, alcohol, drugs, vandalism, prostitution, poverty, illiteracy, illnesses, homeless people, disabled people, discrimination, wars, refugees, hunger, sexual discrimination, teenage pregnancies, gay rights, animal rights, racism…
Society takes care of its members, states provide different kinds of benefits:
- for unemployed members of family
- mothers get benefits, they stay at home on their maternity leaves to bring up their children before they go to kindergarten.
- There are scholarships provided by schools to support the education of children from poor families
- Government also gives some benefits to families with disabled people.
- They also support young families with housing benefits, support building their houses, mortgages
- There are charities, widow parents, single parent, unemployed, sickness benefits, invalidity pensions, retirement pensions, child benefits...
- On the other hand, there are some members of society who just rely on the benefits given by state, and they don't try to find work, they even spend the money on sth else. Society provides these kinds of people with flats, and they don't appreciate them, destroy them...
CRIME: laws and their breaking
Everyone who lives in a society must keep its rules. Every society has its own moral rules of behaviour. Society has a right to expect people to obey the law. A criminal must pay for his crime. The price he has to pay depends on the seriousness of the crime he commits. He can be put in a jail (prison). Criminals can also do social welfare work or community service. Some people are demanding the return of capital punishment (death penalty) for murder.
Kinds of criminality:
-speeding – driving faster you are legally allowed to
-kidnapping – the crime of taking sb away by force and demanding money for his/her safe return
-theft – the crime of stealing something
-robbery – the crime of stealing money or other things from a bank, shop, or person, especially
using violence or threats
-burglary – the crime of entering a building illegally in order to steal
-murder – when someone is deliberately killed
- hijacking – taking control of a plane
- vandalism – damaging public places just for fun
- manslaughter - killing without intention
- terrorism, shoplifting, blackmail, assassination
-sentence – a punishment given by a judge in a court
-fine – an amount of money that you must pay as a punishment
-death sentence/ death penalty/ capital punishment
-community service – unpaid work helping other people that someone does as punishment for a crime
-corporal punishment – when someone punishes a child by hitting them
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