Jobs, Looking for a job, career ladder
Typ práce: Referát
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People go to work because: • they want to earn money
- they want to find their place in society - socialize
- they spend time with other people, they feel useful
- they want to be successful in their lives - ambitions
- they don't want to be unemployed
- they want to prove that they are good at something - special skills
Looking for a job, career ladder
After finishing school, each person is expected to find a job to be able to earn his own living. There are various ways how to get a jobthese days. You can go through the job advertisements in newspapers, on the Internet, ask your friends or go to job centers/employment agencies.
If you are interested in a job offer you need to write a job application. You also need to include
a covering letter and a curriculum vitae CV. CV should include your personal data, details about education, skills and work experience, interests. If you are a successful applicant they may invite you to a job interview. In some companies you may be asked to have the interview in English or in any other foreign language.
The interview is the most important step in the procedure of getting a job, therefore you should make a good impression – be on time, wear appropriate clothes (smart and elegant - suit, formal dress), turn off cell phone, show you are open minded, use proper language in communication (no slang), smile, keep eye contact, be nice, stay calm, relaxed, find the information about the organization, answer the questions clearly. You shouldn't speak badly about your former employers, you shouldn't be nervous...
After the successful interview you become the employee of the company. You sign the contract with the job description, duties, responsibilities, working time, salary, conditions...
Kinds of jobs
Jobs can be divided into manual (blue-collar) and mental(intellectual, white-collar) jobs.
Physical work with the hands is called labour because it is physically demanding activity. Workers spend most of their time outside, no matter what the weather is like. Their jobs require physical strength - people build buildings, work in manufacturing, industry etc. (assembly line worker, farmer, miner, window cleaner, toilet cleaner, grave digger, bricklayer, plumber, electrician, mechanic, builder, carpenter).
On the other hand, white-collar workers spend most of their time in an office rather than in a factory. Intellectual work requires knowledge (lawyers, doctors, scientists, accountants), talent and skills (artists, photographers, designers), communication and organization skills (managers, interpreters, psychoanalysts, teachers, journalists). If you want to do these jobs, you need to work independently, irregular hours, you need a lot of imagination, creativity.
If you want to become a doctor, you need determination, patience, flexibility, sensitivity. You have to be prepared for working long hours sometimes – even at the weekends. A surgeon is also a demanding job, as he has to diagnose the diseases (injuries), perform the operations which may take several hours, he has to reconstruct, repair, remove some organs, limbs and this can be really stressful. He is also responsible for people's lives. A computer analyst must be good at using computers, think logically and be flexible...
In some professions people have responsibility for other people's lives: doctors, pilots, drivers... There are several dangerous occupations (policemen, firefighters, pilots), because they are at high risk of injuries or accidents. For example a firefighter is one of the most demanding jobs, as they work long hours, they always put their lives in danger, it is physically demanding, they are responsible for people's lives and properties.
Armed forces and emergency services: soldier, police officer, firefighter, pilot, sailor...
There are some jobs typical for men: plumbers, firefighters, computer analysts, soldiers, pilots, police officers, builders, miners, electricians, mechanics, politicians, drivers, bodyguards, vets, taxi drivers... Jobs typical for women are: teachers, secretaries, baby sitters, nurses, receptionists, hairdressers, flight attendants, shop assistants, beauticians...
Some jobs are well paid: managers, doctors, lawyers, computer programmers, actors, presenters, sportsmen, accountants, stockbrokers... Low paid jobs are cooks, farmers, cleaners (housekeepers), builders (workers), shop assistants, plumbers, dressmakers...
Outdoor jobs: builders, postmen, farmers, policemen, firefighters, soldiers, gardeners, paparazzi... Indoor jobs include doctors, teachers, dressmakers, hairdressers, cooks, butchers, shop assistants...
According to the working time people have fixed working time jobs (they work regular hours) and flexible working time jobs (they can work different times or at home). Then there is a shift work (people may work in the morning, in the afternoon or at night).
- fixed working time: postmen, hairdressers, builders, accountants, shop assistants... • flexible: truck drivers, managers, scientists, computer programmers, designers, singers, actors... • work shifts: doctors, nurses, vets, bakers, cashiers, firefighters, policemen...
According to the frequency, there can be distinguished two other kinds of jobs: common and odd ones. Common jobs are jobs people normally choose from, jobs which are quite frequent, such as doctors, teachers, workers, builders, drivers etc. On the other hand there are odd jobs- rarely chosen jobs, because they are strange or unusual. The internet provides specific lists of odd jobs with jobs such as video game tester, dog food tester (where the average salary is around $40,000, based on location, industry, and experience), ufologist, sofa tester etc.
Finally, a job can be full-time from nine to five, part-time or flexitime. Especially for students during summer holiday there is an opportunity to take a summer job, which is temporary. The opposite of temporary job is a permanent one.
In Slovakia people often have regular working hours. They spend 8 hours at work each day; in some cases employees start at seven in the morning and finish at three in the afternoon or they can start at eight a.m. and finish at four p.m. But if they want to be paid more, people can work longer, take some extra hours. Doing overtime is very frequent all around the world. In Britain many people often have a nine-to-five job. However, some companies allow their employees to do flexitime - to start or to finish at different time than it is usual. Usually some factories require their workers to do shiftwork – morning, day and night.
In case we are not satisfied we normally quit a job. A completely different case is if a company no longer needs an employee, it will make him/her redundant and due to that he/she is fired. When we are without a job, we are unemployed. If you are jobless and have no income, you can search for help at a job office. The state cares for those who are unemployed by giving them unemployment benefit. In case you lost your job, you can go on the dole.
Job possibilities in Slovakia and abroad
The labour market in Slovakia is relatively small and unemployment rate is one of the highest in EU. Some work opportunities have been created thanks to foreign investors coming to our country to set up the companies. However, the working conditions, especially the pay is low. It is difficult to find a proper job in Slovakia. The rate of unemployment varies according to the regions: the Bratislava region has the lowest and the Eastern Slovak the highest rate. On the other hand, there are just a few qualified people in some fields, such as car industry, mechanical engineering and building industry.
Difficulties to find jobs, bad working conditions, low salaries are some reasons why people from Slovakia try to find jobs abroad. They frequently go to the Czech republic, Ireland, Great Britain, Austria, Germany... and hope they'll find better paid jobs with better working conditions than in Slovakia. They have the opportunities to work there because the labour market abroad is much bigger and is open to foreigners. Furthermore, they get to know different people from different countries, improve their language, gain experience, become independent etc. The most common jobs abroad are baby sitters, waiters, builders, farmers, cashiers, housekeepers...
Career or family?
Young people want to be independent, they have their plans for the future. They want to get the proper education, study at universities. They can work or study abroad, travel to foreign countries, learn foreign languages, earn money and gain some experience. Therefore they start their families later than their parents did. They want to work on their career first and get married later.
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