Australia

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Autor: Dievča apfel
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 02.11.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 869 slov
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Basic Facts: Australia is smallest, youngest continent, with the lowest population density. It is often said that Australia lies at the edge of the world, divided from other continents by long distances. Australia is located south-east of Asia. The Indian Ocean is west and the south Pacific is east. Tasmania lies 240 km south. Nearest is Indonesia, Papua New Guinea on north, Fidji and New Zealand are on east. Its area is 7.7 million km².
The Commonwealth of Australia consists of six states: New South Wales (Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), Qeensland (Brisbane), South Australia (Adelaide), Western Australia (Perth), Tasmania (Hobart) and two territories: The Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) and Northern Territory (Darwin)
 
History: People lived there at a Stone Age level. They did not know how to work the soil or how to rear livestock. They had no plants suitable for cultivation and no original Australian animals were suitable for domestication. Thus, the Australians never became farmers or herdsmen. They made their tools and weapons only of wood and stone. The sole source of food was hunting and gathering. The dingo wild dog was the only one animal that became domesticated. The Australians were divided into about 650 tribes that spoke about 500 different languages. Each tribe usually had own dialect, name and customs, its own territory and hunting grounds. First European who landed in Australia was Spanish captain Luis De Torres followed by others like Dutch voyager Abel Tasman. Captain James Cook explored the eastern coast in 1770 and claimed New South Wales as a British colony. In 1787 the first fleet set out from England on the way to Australia, having on board thousand people, of whom 700 were convicts. In 1788 was based first settlement – Sydney. In 18th century immigration increased because gold was found here. The Commonwealth was proclaimed in 1901.
 
Population: The population of Australia is some 17 million. Around 85% people live in urban areas mainly along the south-east coast. Deserts and the tropical northern part are predictably uninhabited. 95% of inhabitants are of British origin, 3% are made by other European ethnic groups and 1.5% is aborigines. Australian English and aboriginal languages are spoken here.
 
Geography: The Great Dividing Range along the eastern coasthas the highest Australian mountain, Mt. Kosciusko (2,228 m). The western plateau rises to 607 m with arid areas in the Great Sandy and Great Victoria Deserts. The north-east has heavy rainfalls, it´s area often visited by destructive hurricanes. Rivers that flow permanently can be found only in the north, east and in Tasmania. The Murray Rivers flows from New South Wales to the Indian Ocean; the second longest river is the Darling. There are three big lakes here: Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner. The Australian climate varies from warm to subtropical. Australia has summer when we have winter and vice versa. The tropical forests in the north and north-east are displaced by savannah or grassland. The south-east is covered with forests of eucalyptus and other evergreen trees. The animals of Australia are numerous and some of them like the kangaroo, koala bear, dingo, platypus or Tasmanian devil can’t be found elsewhere.
 
Political system: The official title is The Commonwealth of Australia and it´s a British dominion. It has a democratic, federal system and the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II represented by the Governor. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The Federal Parliament has its seat in Canberra and is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. The main parties are Australian Labour Party, Liberal Party, National Party and Australian Democrats. Australia is a member of the important international organisations: G-7, OECD and the Commonwealth. The Australian flag is a blue field with the British Union Jack in the upper left corner, a white federal star, and the stars of the Southern Cross.
 
Economy: Currency used in Australia is the Australian Dollar. Main industries are iron, steel, textiles, electrical equipment, chemicals, cars, aircraft, ship and machinery. Natural riches contain mainly bauxite, coal, copper, iron, lead, nickel, silver, tin, uranium and zinc ores. Australia belongs to the top exporters of beef, lamb, wool and wheat, although only 9% of land is arable. Other agricultural items are barley, oats, hay, sugar, wine, fruit and vegetables. Among the main trading partners belong Japan, the USA, Great Britain and New Zealand.
 
Towns: In Australia there are many big cities. Canberra is stylish, modern city and it is the political centre of Australia. Sydney is the oldest, largest, the most beautiful and the most modern city. It is the main port and the capital of New South Wales. A wonderful part of Sydney is the famous Opera House. It stands in the harbour and looks like sailing boats. Brisbane is the third largest town. Adelaide lies in the southern part of the country. There are two universities and a car-manufacturing factory here. Melbourne is one of the most beautiful cities. At the beginning of century was capital city. There are a lot of museums, galleries and parks. Perth is an important industrial city. Other important cities are Darwin and Hobart.
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