Environment

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča apfel
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 03.11.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 812 slov
Počet zobrazení: 7 833
Tlačení: 514
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Praktické!

We can live on this planet thanks to basic components, which are necessary for human existence - air, water, soil and the sun. But the paradox is that we are polluting these most important things. Pollution is one of the main problems of our age. We must think of the quality of our air, water and soil more than any time before, because the environmental problems affect all countries around the world. Good relations between man and nature are important not only for us but even for animals and plants. Throughout recent decades, certain species of animals have vanished or became rare.
 
There are the problems of seas and oceans, pollution of air, changes in the atmosphere's ozone layer and concentration of carbon dioxide. Water is a substance without which we couldn't survive but we pollute streams, rivers and seas with old cans, oil, rubbish and different kinds of chemicals. We breathe air with smoke from cars and with bacteria and it harm our health. Dislocated ozone layer is also a big threat to our survival because it protects the planet from the direct glare of the sun. It falters out much of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. This radiation is responsible for sunburn, snow blindness, eye damage, skin cancer and so on. Man has become his own worst enemy. Several chemicals used in or produced by industry accelerate the speed of ozone decomposition. The presence of the ozone layer is so important that small changes in its concentration could have dramatic effects on life on the earth. The stuff that destroys the ozone layer is for example FCSs, which are used in refrigeration technology.
 
We must feel more responsibility for the air, water and soil; people must preserve and restore the quality of our environment. Our good relation to nature is one of our most important duties. Our chance to live depends on it.
The air and water pollution is also a big danger for the Czech capital - Prague. There are many factories without modern equipment. Also the main streets and motorways are going through the city and the traffic on these streets is certainly very busy, especially during the day there are lots of cars, buses and trucks there. There are even doctors who say that it is a health hazard to live in Prague. This situation isn’t so terrible in suburbs or in the housing estates, but in some parts near the center or in some industrial parts of the capital the living conditions are very bad.
 
The greenhouse effect is caused by accumulation of certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Primarily burning fossil fuels generates these gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and others. The result of their accumulation in the upper atmosphere is that they act like a layer and stop the heat reflected from the Earth's surface, which would otherwise disappear into space. The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is responsible for about half of the greenhouse effect. If nothing is done, within a few decades the world will be unlike anything in human memory. The climate will change drastically, worldwide rainfall could shift dramatically creating monsoons in some areas, oceans currents and temperature will change too. Plant and animal populations will find themselves in such climatic and environmental conditions to which they cannot be adapted. The level of seas will rise up by 4.5 feet by the year 2035. They will flood several countries in the Pacific and large areas on all other continents. The water from melting snow and ice will cause a lot of erosions too. It is necessary to reduce gas emissions, to use other resources of energy, not to buy plastic but recycled materials etc.
 
Before 1900 rainforests covered 14% of the world's surface. Today they cover only 7%. The reason for this is simple. They have been cut down to provide land, paper, timber, medicines, minerals and fuel. But not only trees are disappearing. Every rainforest also contains millions of animals, insects and flowers and these are destroyed too. If man continues to cut down rainforests, more than one million species of plants and animals will become extinct by the year 2030.
 
At the moment, 94% of the world's energy comes from fossil fuels. One possibility is nuclear energy - but after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, many people think nuclear power isn't safe and they are for "green" solutions: wind energy, solar energy, wave energy from the sea or geothermal energy from hot rocks under the ground
 
Acid rain is one of the most serious pollution problems. Factories let out gases and chemicals into the air, there they mix together and are carried for hundreds of miles by the wind. And finally they fall back to the earth with falling raindrops. This acid rain kills fishes and trees. It also slowly destroys buildings and bridges.
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