Human body, health care

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 21.03.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 3 827 slov
Počet zobrazení: 100
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Human body, health care 

Good health is essential to human welfare and to sustained economic and social development. The exact definition says that health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Undoubtedly health is one of the most valuable things which man can’t just simply buy for money (at least for now). Furthermore, a body that is in great physical and psychical state is expected to manage more everyday activities and solve serious problems and stressful situations much easier than it is possible with some kind of illness or sickness. We need to be in good shape and also have good mental health to work and fully enjoy our lives.

Human body is the most complicated structure on the planet and even today some parts, functions and reactions of organism are unexplained. Trying to explore the whole body system, doctors and scientists are still fascinated by perfect composition of each organ in the body that is made up of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. The average height of an adult human is about 1.7 – 1.8 m. First of all I’d like to describe the human body. The head is the upper part of our body containing the skull, brain, hair, eyes, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, teeth, tongue and chin. The trunk connects our head with the neck. The arm consists of shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. Each hand has a palm and 5 fingers. The leg consists of the thigh, knee, calf and foot with its heel. All the body is covered by skin and there are lots of bones. Inside the body there are many organs. The most important are the brain, heart and lungs. The others are: liver, stomach, kidneys, blood…

Functions of organs:

Eyes - An eye is a round-shaped organ that works with the brain to provide us with vision. Though many eye-problems may be minor and will clear up with self-treatment, some may be serious and demand urgent medical attention. Vision changes come with age and also there is increasing risk of developing more serious eye problems.

Mouth - mechanical digestion, chewing, swallowing food, form words in speech.

Teeth - give a shape to the face, speaking clearly, and chewing food. In order to avoid problems man has to regularly visit a dentist, daily brushing and flossing.

Skin - performs a range of essential complex functions, including temperature control, and it is the largest organ of the body.

Heart - is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood, which carries all the vital materials which help our bodies function and removes the waste products that we do not need. If the heart ever ceases to pump blood the body begins to shut down and after a very short period of time will die.

Lungs - is essential respiration organ, provide breathing. Damages of lungs are often caused by smoking or bad air environment.

Brain - this organ weighs about a kilo and is made up of two hemispheres. It is like a super computer that works by processing information and sending it using very small electrical impulses. It can be said, that our brain defines who we are.

B.

Good health is important. It is important to see a doctor one or two times a year. The doctor can look at our bodies to discover health problems and take care of them early. This way it is often possible to avoid serious illness. Many people pass through the clinic every day for checks ups. If we still feel unwell, we finally decide to see a physician who is called General Practitioner. It is better to get a reservation for an appointment with the doctor if we want to avoid long waiting in waiting room which may often be crowded. Then the nurse says “Next please“ and invites us into the consulting room. The nurse has to look on our medical record and wants to see our insurance card and then she may do some pre-examination check. Then we are ready to enter the doctor’s office, sometimes these two room aren’t separated and you go directly to the office... The doctor usually asks what the trouble is and then asks us to strip to the waist because he or she must examine our chest and throat. The doctor wants to know if we have a temperature, a good appetite and where we feel pain. Then he or she listens to our lungs and heart and we have to take a deep breath or stop breathing according to his orders. He also wants us to open our mouth and say “ah“ to see if our tonsils are red. Sometimes he or she checks the blood pressure and feels the pulse, takes the blood count and throat culture or puts urine through lab tests. We have to say how we feel, if we have a headache, a sore throat, a cold, a cough, or if we are sick and hoarse. Finally the doctor diagnoses the case and therapy and prescribes a medicine. Most often we suffer from a common infection such as flu, tonsillitis, bronchitis or pneumonia. At the pharmacy we get antibiotics, vitamins, pain relievers and gargle. We can also buy some medicinal herbs to prepare herbal tea.

We can suffer from various illnesses beginning with common children diseases such as: measles, chickenpox, mumps or scarlet fever. Usually we suffer from common infections such as cold, flu, angina, indigestion, diarrhoea or constipation. In such cases we usually stay in bed, drink herbal teas, take pills, drops or vitamins and after a week or two we feel well again. However the situation may sometimes be more serious and needs special treatment in the hospital, e.g. heart attack, breaking an arm or leg, animal or snake bite, severe bleeding, poisoning, unconsciousness or in the case of some real dangerous disease such as tuberculosis, anaemia, pneumonia, leukaemia, diabetes, hepatitis. The doctors´ care must be very attentive because human life is in danger. It is to say that there are still diseases which cannot be cured such as cancer or AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

CANCER is one of the biggest threats nowadays. Every year, more and more people of all ages are diagnosed with tumours of all types. However, scientists develop more and more efficient treatment techniques. In the last few years, they started to talk more about this disease in the media and we can say that it is not a taboo anymore. We also get a lot of information about the prevention of cancer and its treatment. Daffodil Day is organised in many countries, including Slovakia. The money raised from Daffodil Day is used to fund scientific research of the causes and treatment of cancer and to provide support for people with cancer and their families. This way people also hear and learn more about it and they realise that anybody can become a patient of an oncology centre.

AIDS is one of the most serious diseases that threatens people nowadays. It is a viral disease that impairs the immune system of the human body leaving it open to any infection. Those infections that are not dangerous for people with normal immune systems may be mortally dangerous for AIDS patients. According to the World Health Organization more than 3.6 million people are infected. It does not mean that they all will develop the disease, but all of them are able to infect other people. AIDS was first identified in homosexuals, but later it was found among intravenous drug abusers, haemophiliacs and other persons who had received blood transfusion, heterosexuals and their children. No cure or vaccine for AIDS has yet been discovered. Many countries of the world spend a lot of money trying to find a cure. There are large publicity campaigns all over the world telling people all about AIDS prevention – trying to stop more people catching the disease. Advertisements in newspapers, in television and on the streets warn of the danger. Publicity has also focused on heterosexual people who are encouraged to use a condom to help to cut down the risk of catching AIDS. They are also advised to have only one sexual partner. The danger of AIDS has brought up questions of morality, promiscuity and fidelity in current society.

In the last decade, the world has been threatened by flu epidemics. The first one, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), is a highly contagious disease, which was first recognised in 2003. The virus probably originated in Chinese factory farms. The virus spread rapidly from Asia to other countries, including Canada, infecting hundreds of people. Scientists say that the development of effective drugs and vaccines for SARS is likely to take a long time. The second one, the bird flu, is very contagious among birds and can also kill some domesticated birds (e.g. chickens, ducks, turkeys…). Thousands of birds had to be killed after the virus appeared on farms all over the world. The virus does not usually infect humans and transmission from one person to another has not been observed yet.

Stress – Anybody can suffer from stress. There are certain jobs that are very stressful, like some jobs in business or the police. Probably everyone suffers from stress at some time in their life – students, doctors, factory workers – anybody. Stress is caused by different factors. One is time and pressure of work and study. At school, for example, students can become overly stressed when they have a lot of homework to do and they feel they haven´t got enough time to do it all. Other factors can be social – if you have a problem with your family or friends or at school. And it depends on the person – if you´re shy, social occasions like parties can be very stressful. Stress can cause a lot of health problems. There are lots of things you can do to reduce stress. You can organise your work or studies. For example, you can make a list and do all the important things first. You must eat well – have a good diet – and of course do exercise regularly. Finally, you can talk to people about your problems – talk to a friend, someone in your family or, if you´re studying, talk to a teacher. You can also do relaxation exercises.

An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and more. In the U.S., millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can happen at work or play, indoors or outdoors, driving a car, or walking across the street.

Wounds are injuries that break the skin or other body tissues. They include cuts, scrapes, scratches, and punctured skin. They often happen because of an accident, but surgery, sutures, and stitches also cause wounds. Minor wounds usually aren't serious, but it is important to clean them. Serious and infected wounds may require first aid followed by a visit to your doctor. You should also seek attention if the wound is deep, you cannot close it yourself, you cannot stop the bleeding or get the dirt out, or it does not heal.

Other common types of injuries include: Animal bites, Bruises, Burns, Dislocations, Electrical injuries, Fractures, Sprains and strains

C.

When we are young and healthy, we do not think much about healthy lifestyle or healthy food, and even when we do some physical exercise we think more about the shape of our body than about health. We take health for granted and often do things that harm our bodies. Smoking is one of the most obvious examples. People smoke even though they know how harmful smoking for their health is.

Is there anything we can do to keep our body healthy and fit? We can certainly do a lot. In first place we should listen to our body, if often gives us a warning, when we eat, drink or do something that is not good for us. We should realise that sooner or later our body will respond to all we get into our body - food, drinks, cigarettes or drugs; and also what we get in mentally such as stress, grief or exhaustion. So we should keep ourselves in balance; work and relax, eat good food, which means rich in vitamins and minerals; drink a lot of water, go for walks, exercise and sleep well at night and look at the bright side of our life. This could keep us fit physically and mentally. And we also have to be careful so that we do not get injured. Prevention is always better than remedy. More and more people today seem to realise that good health means a longer and happier life. Therefore, they take better care of their health than before. They eat healthier food, practise different kinds of sports and try to avoid stressful situations as much as possible. A healthy, strong and beautiful body is an ideal for the majority of people and not only among the young. It is not so difficult to pursue this aim if you live in a developed country with good health care.

D.

The ability to vaccinate children to prevent disease is, without a doubt, one of the greatest medical breakthroughs to be achieved by mankind. According to a study at the Paediatric Academic Society, child vaccinations have prevented about 10.5 million cases of infectious disease and have saved about 33,000 lives per year since they were implemented. These vaccinations are now required for a child to attend a state public school in USA. However, many parents believe that immunization should not be mandatory to enrol their children in public schools due to the fact that some parents hold religious beliefs that their children cannot be vaccinated or are subjecting their children to perilous circumstances when vaccinating their children. Although many people are under the assumption that vaccinating children should not be required, the reality is that they should be required to not only maintain a healthy ecosystem in which disease is not a factor, but also because the advantages and benefits that are produced from child vaccination greatly outweigh the detriments that come as well.

The task of getting vaccinated is something that most of us, if not all of us, have undertaken over the course of our lives. It is likely that we all have memories of going to the doctor, having them give us a shot and crying, but getting a lollipop or a sticker in the end. These shots are filled with a vaccine for a particular strain of disease, except the strain of disease is weakened to allow our immune systems to create antibodies for them, preventing later disease. Although we dreaded getting them, they are an essential part of keeping children healthy and breathing. Many parents, however, believe that these shots are dangerous and the substance within brings the risk of their child contracting autism after getting a vaccination.

As with everything in the world, there are always risks. Randomness is a fundamental constant in the universe and no one can be completely sure about anything for something can possibly go wrong in all situations. It is argued that since vaccines sometimes can cause brain inflammation that vaccines are a direct link to autism and brain damage. However, researchers and scientists reject the idea that vaccinations cause autism. Although many professionals agree that vaccinations have no relation to autism or brain damage, the belief that they do continues to turn parents away from vaccination along with their religious beliefs.

Many people only take the initiative to do something if they are directly being affected by something or are almost assuredly going to be affected by something. A large number of people are under the assumption that getting a vaccination is unnecessary due to the fact that the risk of getting infected is so small. However, that is far from the truth. Although the chance for infection was small because of vaccinations, in 2014, the CDC reported the largest measles outbreak in 18 years affecting 129 people in 13 states across the nation. This could not have been anticipated because there had not been nearly as many reported cases since 1996, but it came as a surprise and devastated the lives of many people and many families. A devastation that could have been entirely prevented had the affected people gotten the vaccinations that would have prevented their illness.

Vaccination is a massive innovation achieved by mankind and should not be overlooked. These simple injections have the potential to save tens of thousands of lives every single year and make the world a safer place in general to be in.

E.

The term "free medical care" includes any type of medical treatment - from seeing your doctor because of a common cold to the most complicated operation. The Health insurance system is undergoing some changes at present. Employers pay health insurance for their employees but everybody can pay extra money for his/her health insurance. Private people must buy their health insurance themselves. If we fall ill or if we have an accident, we go to the Health Centre, Policlinic, Hospital or to some Private Doctor. Many factories and offices have their own doctors. To improve the situation and promote the competition we can choose our doctors now. There are various types of physicians who treat various diseases and disorders. During the socialist period, there was a state monopoly in health care in our country. After the political changes in 1989, Slovakia gradually introduced a reform of the health care system. Privatization (of pharmacies and hospitals) and the development of the insurance system were the main aims of the reform. Some hospitals became semi-independent institutions. Patients are now free to choose their doctor.

But in the world this is not a commonplace, for example in USA: “The US healthcare system is by far the most expensive in the world, but it now leaves about 50 million of its citizens totally without coverage and fails to provide adequate protection for millions more. And the quality of care is on average inferior to that of countries that spend much less. “ In the US they don’t even have paid parental leave. With Suriname, Papua New Guinea and several island states in the Pacific, they are the only ones, that don’t require paid parental leave from employers. US social and healthcare system is a disaster, unprecedented failure of supposed “leader of the free world.”

You may call them simply doctors. But most doctors have extra expertise in one type of medicine or another. In fact, there are several hundred medical specialties and subspecialties. Here are the most common types of doctors you'll likely see.

Allergists/Immunologists

They treat immune system disorders such as asthma, eczema, food allergies, insect sting allergies, and some autoimmune diseases.

Anesthesiologists

These doctors give you drugs to numb your pain or to put you under during surgery, childbirth, or other procedures. They monitor your vital signs while you’re under anesthesia.

Cardiologists

They’re experts on the heart and blood vessels. You might see them for heart failure, a heart attack, high blood pressure, or an irregular heartbeat.

Dermatologists

Have problems with your skin, hair, nails? Do you have moles, scars, acne, or skin allergies? Dermatologists can help.

Endocrinologists

These are experts on hormones and metabolism. They can treat conditions like diabetes, thyroid problems, infertility, and calcium and bone disorders.

Gastroenterologists

They’re specialists in digestive organs, including the stomach, bowels, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. You might see them for abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, jaundice, or cancers in your digestive organs.

Hematologists

These are specialists in diseases of the blood, spleen, and lymph glands, like sickle cell disease, anemia, hemophilia, and leukemia.

Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialists

They work with people who are nearing death. They’re experts in pain management. They work with a team of other doctors to keep up your quality of life.

Internists

These primary-care doctors treat both common and complex illnesses, usually only in adults. You’ll likely visit them or your family doctor first for any condition. Internists often have advanced training in a host of subspecialties, like heart disease, cancer, or adolescent or sleep medicine.

Nephrologists

They treat kidney diseases as well as high blood pressure and fluid and mineral imbalances linked to kidney disease.

Neurologists

These are specialists in the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. They treat strokes, brain and spinal tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease.

Obstetricians and Gynecologists

Often called OB/GYNs, these doctors focus on women's health, including pregnancy and childbirth. They do Pap smears, pelvic exams, and pregnancy checkups. OB/GYNs are trained in both areas. But some of them may focus on women's reproductive health (gynecologists), and others specialize in caring for pregnant women (obstetricians).

Oncologists

These internists are cancer specialists. They do chemotherapy treatments and often work with radiation oncologists and surgeons to care for someone with cancer.

Ophthalmologists

You call them eye doctors. They can prescribe glasses or contact lenses and diagnose and treat diseases like glaucoma. Unlike optometrists, they’re medical doctors who can treat every kind of eye condition as well as operate on the eyes.

Otolaryngologists

They treat diseases in the ears, nose, throat, sinuses, head, neck, and respiratory system. They also can do reconstructive and plastic surgery on your head and neck.

Pathologists

These lab doctors identify the causes of diseases by examining body tissues and fluids under microscopes.

Pediatricians

They care for children from birth to young adulthood. Some pediatricians specialize in pre-teens and teens, child abuse, or children's developmental issues.

Physiatrists

These specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation treat neck or back pain and sports or spinal cord injuries as well as other disabilities caused by accidents or diseases.

Plastic Surgeons

You might call them cosmetic surgeons. They rebuild or repair your skin, face, hands, breasts, or body. That can happen after an injury or disease or for cosmetic reasons.

Pulmonologists

You would see these specialists for problems like lung cancer, pneumonia, asthma, emphysema, and trouble sleeping caused by breathing issues.

Radiologists

They use X-rays, ultrasound, and other imaging tests to diagnose diseases. They can also specialize in radiation oncology to treat conditions like cancer.

General Surgeons

These doctors can operate on all parts of your body. They can take out tumors, appendices, or gallbladders and repair hernias. Many surgeons have subspecialties, like cancer, hand, or vascular surgery.

Urologists

These are surgeons who care for men and women for problems in the urinary tract, like a leaky bladder. They also treat male infertility and do prostate exams.

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