Communication and its forms topic
Typ práce: Maturita
Počet zobrazení: 46
Communication and its forms topic
Human beings use their language (system of sounds, words, patterns) to communicate thoughts and feeling. On the other hand, we also use systems of signs, symbols, and gestures to express information. Like all animals, we have a complex body language of gestures, postures and facial expressions. Our bodies are constantly talking. We smile, frown or make different gestures, shapes with our hands, etc. Sometimes we combine words with gestures, other times our bodies show our feelings or thoughts. When we yawn, we are tired or bored. Sitting with eyes and mouth wide open means that we are fascinated. Banging your fist on the table or stamping your feet expresses anger, shaking hands or hugging conveys pleasure or satisfaction. We produce thousands of signs every day. We are able to understand non-verbal performers like mime artists or dancers who “speak” body language fluently.
Verbal communication refers to that form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication can be done by word (mouth) or by writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to express. When we talk to others, we assume that others understand us completely what we are saying, because we know what we are saying. But it is not that easy. People usually have their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and therefore it creates a barrier in delivering the right meaning.
In oral communication, spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. This type of communication is influenced by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. Written communication message can be transmitted via e-mail, letter, report, memo etc. The content is influenced by vocabulary, grammar, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being primarily used in business. So, it is considered as one of essential business skills.
Nonverbal communication is sending or receiving wordless messages. We can say that it is communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker. Nonverbal communication helps the receiving side in interpreting the message. Often, nonverbal signals are describing the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affect the effectiveness of message.
Sign language is a system of hand movements and gestures which represent words and ideas. Native North Americans used to use sign language to communicate between tribes, which had different languages. Today, there are different forms of it being used all over the world, mostly by the deaf. There is no international sign language, and even in Slovakia, sign languages differ from region to region.
People speak and respond differently in different situations. Between our friends, family or schoolmates, we can ordinarily use informal communication. We can be relaxed around people we know, we don’t need to completely guard what we are saying, because everyone is speaking like that. But we need to differ also the situations. For example in school, when the break is on we can talk to classmates informally. But when the lesson begins and the teacher comes in, we need to shift to formal language or at least we need to guard what we say. On the contrary, the formal communication is necessary for serious or official situations, for example when you apply for a job, or write a letter to some company. It is very important to distinguish the situations, because if we assess the situation incorrectly, those expressions can embarrass us. It is also critical to learn symbolic gestures and traditions of other nations before visiting them. One meaning can be expressed by different actions and so it could be understood differently.
The way we communicate has radically changed over recent times. For a long time we relied only on sending letters, nowadays also referred to as "snail mail". Then man managed to invent the telegraph, later the telephone, radio and television. These inventions made communication faster, but nowadays they could be viewed as obsolete in comparison to those, that we have invented in the past few years.
These days we have a lot of possibilities of how we can communicate, for example cell phone, the Internet (e-mail, IM, VoIP, Video calls), social networking (Skype, Myspace, Facebook), etc. The cell phones (smart phones) became a merging and replacement device for your landline telephone, watch, calendar, address book, camera, radio and little by little even your wallet. In case you think you might be disturbing someone with your phone call, you might choose to send a short text message. But not every message can fit into 160 characters. If that’s the case, people turn to the base of modern communication: e-mail. Nowadays, e-mails became the standard messaging service for everyone, from families to large conglomerates. Since e-mail makes communication over large distances so easy and simple, it has encouraged business innovations such as outsourcing. The most recent form of communication that has evolved is so-called “social networking”. This phrase describes the functionality of sites such as Twitter, Facebook or Instagram, which let users join networks, such as workplace or school networks, to interact with other people. They allow you to add people to your friends list and interact with them by sending short messages, sharing photos or videos or simply by informing all your friends what you're up to.
A language is a system of symbols for encoding and decoding information. There are about 6500 languages worldwide. Some live, die, move from place to place and change with time. Any language that ceases to change or develop is categorized as a dead language. On contrary, any language that is in a continuous state of change is marked as a living language or modern language. The science of studying languages is called linguistics. The language has become the most important tool used for communication without which no society is able to survive.
If someone wants to study language in order to be understood by the most people possible, Mandarin Chinese in recommended. It's because China is the most populated country in the world and the number of people whose mother language is Chinese is about 870 mil., Hindi and Spanish language follow. However, you won't find these languages useful in case of travelling. On contrary, English which is the mother language of almost 340 mil. people is commonly used as a lingua franca.
A lingua franca is a hybrid language used for communication between 2 or more groups with different native languages. It is estimated that half of the world population is able to communicate in English properly. English is the official language of 52 countries, Great Britain and USA included. It is also the most dominating language of the Internet. In addition, it influences the vocabulary of other languages, mainly in the field of terminology. These words are referred to as neologisms. Therefore, you will surely find some English word adoptions in other languages. The ability of speaking English is required in many professions. The same comes with the international communication. I've already mentioned, studying languages is extremely important for communication with other people. Some people think that communication of people with different mother languages could be solved by an artificial language. The researchers are working on the development of an artificial language. An artificial language is manmade, easy to write easy to read and more importantly, it has no nationality. It doesn't originate naturally as for example: English, Chinese or Spanish. An example of an artificial language is Esperanto. Currently, only about five million people worldwide speak it.
Language is used in a wide range of situations. In some languages, for example, there are very complicated rules about how to speak to older or more important people. English does not have a system of this kind. However, there are some words and structures which are mostly used in formal situations e. g. situations when people are careful about how they express themselves, like report writing, business meetings, conferences or polite conversations with strangers. And some words and structures are mostly used in informal situations, for example conversations with friends, or letter to one's family. Writing is more often formal, and speech is more often informal, but informal writing and formal speech are used when the situation makes them necessary or more convenient for both sides. Most words and expressions are neither formal nor informal, but neutral. English speakers do not have to know two ways of how to say everything. Requests and questions can be made more polite by making them less direct. What's more, the formality of the language is also used when we want to make a distance. On contrary, the informal language is used to show friendliness, equality, feeling of closeness, solidarity.
Slang is very informal kind of vocabulary, used mostly in speech by people who know each other well. Many slang expressions are used by members of particular social and professional groups, and nearly all slang is used between people who know each other well or share the same social background. So it's usually a mistake for "outsiders" (including foreigners) to try deliberately to use slang. This can give the impression that people are claiming membership to a group where they do not belong to. There is also danger, that the slang may be out of date, when slang gets into books, it is often already dead. It is best to wait until one is really accepted as a part of a community, one will then start using their slang naturally and correctly along with the rest of their language.
No language stands still. New words and expressions are always being created, usually because something new is invented or sometimes just for fun. No government committee decides whether a new word is acceptable or not. If it is used frequently and in a variety of contexts, it will find its way into dictionary.
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