Czech Republic

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: vazec
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 09.12.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 137 slov
Počet zobrazení: 6 169
Tlačení: 498
Uložení: 513
Praktické!
The Czech republic is situated in Central Europe - in the heart of Europe. It is an inland country, it covers an area of nearly 79 thousand square kilometres and the number of inhabitants is about 10,3 million people. Our republic has four neighbours. In the north is Poland and in the south is Austria,  Slovakia in the east and Germany in the west. The country consists of three main regions: Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.

History. From the historical point of view our territory has been inhabited by Slavonic tribes since the 5th century AD. The first Slavonic state was Sámo´s Empire. The Great Moravian Empire was formed in the 9th century. After its disintegration, state activities were concentrated in the Czech Land. When Přemysl´s dynasty died out by sword, the Czech throne was engaged by Lucembourg dynasty. One of the most important Lucembourg rulers was Charles IV., who ruled in the 14th century. During his reign the Prague University was founded and Prague New Town was built. The first part of 15th century is marked by the Hussite Movement.

It is named after Jan Hus (John Huss), professor, dean and later rector of Charles University. In 1415 he was burnt as a heretic. After the period of the rule of Jagiellonian dynasty on the Czech throne, came 350 years long period of the Habsburg dynasty. After the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620 the country was Germanised and many non-Catholic artists and scientists had to leave the country.

At the end of the World War I. the Austrian-Hungarian Empire fell and in October 1918 the independent Czechoslovak Republic was proclaimed with T.G.Masaryk as the first president. But twenty years later, in March 1939 Bohemia and Moravia were occupied by the Germans and after few months World War II. started. In May 1945 Czechoslovakia was liberated by the Red and US armies. In 1948 the Communist Party won the elections and started the „socialistic“ era. The fifties are known as the period of „red terror“. Lots of people emigrated, were imprisoned and even executed. In 1960´s started more democratic period known as the „Prague Spring“, but the invasion of Warsaw Pact troops in August 1968 returned country under the Soviet control. The seventies are known as the period of „normalisation“, when many non-conformists had to leave the country again. After the „velvet revolution“ in November 1989, the era of Communists as leading party ended. World famous dramatist Václav Havel was elected as the president and Czechoslovakia started to built democracy. The disagreements between Czech and Slovak nation began in 1991 and this situation ended in January 1993 when Czechoslovakia was divided in two sovereign republics - the Czech and Slovak Republic.

The rivers, lakes and mountains. The Czech Republic doesn’t have any seacoast, but it has many rivers. Largest river is Elbe - it has its source in the Giant Mountains and leading into the North Sea. The largest and most important tributary of the Elbe is the Vltava. Several huge dams (= přehrada) have been built on this river, for example Lipno, Orlík or Slapy. Another important rivers are Odra and Morava. Odra leading into the Baltic Sea and Morava with its tributary (= přítok) Dyje flows into the Black Sea. South Bohemia is known for its large and numerous ponds. Freshwater fish are farmed here, especially carp. Also two glacial lakes can be found in CZ - Černé and Čertovo in the Šumava.

The surface of our country is rather hilly. The Western border is formed by the Krušné Mountains and the Šumava. Šumava is the paradise for nature lovers. It is very old mountain range, for which is typical rounded shapes of the mountains, numerous rivers and lakes. There are two glacial lakes. The largest one is Černé jezero. Čertovo jezero and Plešné jezero are next two largest. The highest mountains in CZ are the Giant Mountains. There is located the highest Czech mountain - Sněžka (1602 metres high). The Jizerské and Orlické Mountains lie on the border with Poland. Other mountain ranges visited by tourists are Beskydy and Jeseníky.

In Czech republic there are many places of interest for example the Gothic Křivoklát Castle, which was first mentioned in 12th century. Castle collections include Gothic and Renaissance paintings on wood and sculptures; Karlšetjn, which was founded by Charles IV. As a treasury for the crown jewels and it also became a king’s favourite castle and that was probably why the women were forbidden there. But his wife Eliška broke this prohibition; and Lány a Rebaissance chateau which in 1921 bought the Czechoslovak government for President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk who is buried there. Since then the chateau has been the representative residence of Czech presidents.

Industry and agriculture. The Czech Republic is traditionally an industrial country. The main industrial areas are located in northern part of the country. Fuel and energy industries are very well developed, other industries include metallurgy, the machine tool industries, chemical, building and consumer industry. Czech beer brewing and wine making have a long tradition and popularity both home and abroad. Our country is rich in minerals - black and brown coal, lignite, sand for glass-making or iron ore are mined here.
The lowlands are important for agriculture and crop farming. The most extensive Czech lowland is Polabská. The land along the banks of the river Morava is also very fertile. In the lowlands sugar beet, sweet corn, fruit and vegetables are grown. In the highlands mainly potatoes and grain are grown.

Government type and administration. The Head of the state is the President. He is elected for a four-year term. Real power is represented by parliament and the government. Czech Parliament consists of the House of Deputies and the Senate. The government is composed of the premier, the vice-premiers and the ministers. The Czech flag consists of two horizontal stripes - white on the top, red on the bottom and a blue wedge. The valid currency is Czech crown. Czech Republic is member of many important world organizations such as OSN, NATO and others.

The Czech cities. The largest and capital city is Prague (1,2 million inhabitants), second largest is Brno, Karlovy Vary is the biggest and most famous of our spa towns. In 1522 a medical description of the springs and by the end of the 16th century over 200 buildings had been built.By the 19th century Karlovy Vary  had become very well-known in central Europe and many famous people of that time visited it. There actually 12 different springs here. The best known is Vřídlo and at 72°C is the hottest. There are many buildings in different styles especially churches, because Vary were visited by many strangers, which had different religion. Other large cities are Ostrava, Plzeň, Olomouc, České Budějovice.
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