Australia and New Zealand

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec macxo
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 22.12.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 073 slov
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AUSTRALIA
 
Australia is situated in the eastern part of the Southern Hemisphere. Australia is an island continent lying between the Indian Ocean on the west and Pacific Ocean on the east. It is the sixth largest country and the smallest continent.
 
HISTORY

James Cook discovered Australia on the 20th of April 1770. The original inhabitants of Australia were people called Aborigines. This name they gained from British people in 1788. The each group of Aborigines had its land and language. They travelled to different parts of their land to find food and water, they ate plants and fruits and caught animals and fish. After 1788 their life suddenly began to change. Life was very difficult for the Aborigines: they couldn’t own land, couldn’t get jobs, their children couldn’t go to school with white children. Nowadays it is better.

GOVERNMENT

The official title is the Commonwealth of Australia and it is a British dominion. It is federal state with a Governor General at its head. The governor is a deputy to the British queen Elisabeth II. The head of government is the Prime Minister.
-  The capital is Canberra.
 
Australia consists of 6 states and 3 territories:

- Western Australia – the capital is Perth
- South Australia – the capital is Adelaide
- Queensland – the capital is Brisbane
- New South Wales – the capital is Sydney
- Victoria – the capital is Melbourne
- Tasmania – the capital is Hobart

Territories: 1. Northern Territory – the capital is Darwin
2. Australian Capital Territory – the capital is Canberra
 
POPULATION

Country isn’t densely populated. There are only about 16 million inhabitants. The inhabitants are mostly of British origin. The density is one of the lowest in the world, only two people to one square kilometre. Population is concentrated especially along the south – east coast. The tropical northern part is practically uninhabited.

GEOGRAPHY

- DESERTS
There are two big deserts: the Great Sand Desert and the Victoria Desert
- RIVERS
Country has only two big rivers: the Murray and the Darling
- LAKES
There are about 760 lakes. There are three large lakes: Eyre, Torrent, and Gardner
- MOUNTAINS
  Australia has one big mountain range, the Australian Alps. The highest peak is Mont Kosciusko, it is 2 228 meters high. The south – east is covered with forest of eucalyptus and other evergreen trees.
- CLIMATE
  It has a warm climate with plenty of sunshine – the average temperature in January (summer) is 24 degrees above zero and in July (winter) it is 8 degrees above zero.The interior of Australia is also called „the outback“. This part has extremely  hot and dry climate. There is little rainfall there. The south – east has pleasant type of climate.
- ANIMALS
  The typical Australia’s animals are: kangaroos, koalas, platypus, and seal. These peculiar animals we cannot find elsewhere.
 
INDUSTRY

- EXPORT
The main Australian exports are: wool (sheep breeding ), beef, mutton, wheat, and minerals. Australia is rich in gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron.
 
- MAIN INDUSTRIES
  Mining, food industry, textile industry, chemical industry, car industry, ship industry...
Only 7% of the population work in agriculture, 30% in industry and trade and 33% in services.
 
- MAIN TRADING PARTNERS
Among the main trading partners belong: Japan, USA, Great Britain.

CURRENCY

Currency used in Australia is Australian Dollar.
 
FAMOUS AUSTRALIANS
Mel Gibson – film star
Kylie Minogue, Jason Donovan – singers
Rupert Murdoch – international businessman
 
NEW ZEALAND:
 
GOVERNMENT
New Zealand is a democratic country with its own parliament. It is part of British Commonwealth. The official head of state is Elizabeth II, the queen of England, Scotland and Wales.
New Zealand was the first country in the world to give the vote to woman in 1893, to have old age pensions for retirement people and the eight-hour working day.
 
GEOGRAPHY
This country is bigger in size than Great Britain. New Zealand is situated in the Pacific Ocean about 2000 km from Australia. It consists of two large islands plus other smaller islands.
-  There are two main islands:
1.The North Island – with a warm climate and many volcanic activity
2.The South Island – it is cooler and has got a higher rainfall.
 
There are the Southern Alps with Mount Cook (3754 m) the highest mountain in New Zealand. The country is mostly mountainous. New Zealand’s climate is quite pleasant. There is a lot of sun and it often rains there. Summers are not too hot (+28°C) and winters are mild (+8°C).
 
ECONOMY
New Zealand has got some industry-iron, steel, machinery and motor vehicle production but agriculture is more important. The agriculture of New Zealand is specialized in cattle raising and sheep farming. The cattle can be outside even during winter, thanks to the mild climate. The main industry is food processing. Wool, fruit and vegetables are important agricultural products.

POPULATION
There are 3,6 million people in the country. Over 80% of people are European (mainly British) origin. Around 9% of the population is Maoris – original inhabitants.The two official languages are English and Maori.
 
CITIES
Wellington (400,000 people) is the capital.
Auckland is the largest city with 800,000 people. Auckland´s nickname is  “ the city of sails” because it has more boats than anywhere else in the world.

WILDLIFE
New Zealand has got some unique animals and plants. The tuatara is a reptile that has survived from the era of the dinosaurs. The weta is the largest and heaviest insect in the world and the kiwi (the national symbol of New Zealand) is a large bird that cannot fly.
 
LIFESTYLE
New Zealanders, who are also known as “ Kiwis”, are relaxed people who love the outdoor life. It is not surprising that New Zealand is successful at many sports. Its national sport is rugby.
 
QUESTIONS:
- Could you name Australia’s states and territories?
- Which part of Australia is most populated?
- Can you tell something about Australian political system?
- Can you name some typical Australian animals?
- Do you know the name of the first inhabitants of Australia?
- In which century was Australia discovered?
- Can you explain the expression „the outback“?
- What is the capital of New Zealand?
- What is the name of the first inhabitants of NZ?
- What is the national symbol of NZ?
- Who is the head of state in NZ?
- Can you name peculiar animals living in NZ and Australia?
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