The United States of America

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Autor: macxo
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 30.12.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 185 slov
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The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It is nearly as large as Europe.

History

-  Christopher Columbus discovered America on the 12th of October 1492. Thinking he had landed in India, he named the Native Americans Indians.
-  Next important moment was on the 4th of July 1776 when Declaration of Independence was adopted and the USA became independent of England. The leader of American army was George Washington and he was elected the first President of the USA. The 4th July has become a national holiday.

Cotação dólar americano (USD) - Estados Unidos de América

Geography

The USA is situated in southern part of the North America and its neighbours are Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. It is lying between the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west.
The USA is a federation of 50 states:
-  A block of 48 continental states
Alaska - is separated from the continental states by Canada and it became the 49th state of America in 1959.Alaska is the biggest state of the USA.
Hawaii/ the Hawaiian Islands – became the 50th state at the same time as Alaska.

Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains form eastern part of the USA
-  CORDILLERAS forms western part of the USA. Cordilleras are divided into several range: * the Rocky Mountains
* The Cascade Range
* Sierra Nevada...
The highest peak of the USA is in Alaska; it is Mt. McKinley (6.194m).

Rivers and lakes
The USA has many rivers. The third longest river in the world after the Amazon and the Nile is the Mississippi – Missouri River. Other well-known rivers are:
The Colorado, the Columbia, the Rio Grande, the Sacramento, the Yukon- the biggest river in Alaska.
 
There are also several hundreds of lakes:
5 Great Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario, they lie on the US – Canada border
Great Salt Lake is the largest lake in the Cordillera Mountains
People can admire the world-known Niagara Falls (51m high). They are on the Canadian side and on the US side too.

Climate
- Is varied, from the arctic climate in Alaska to subtropical in the south. Hawaii and Florida lie in the tropical zone and the block of 48 states is in the temperate zone.

Population
The population of the USA is about 254 million. The density is 29 people per square kilometre. There are about 80 % white people, 12 % are the blacks, 9 % Hispanic and the rest come from Asia, Pacific Island and Europe.

Economy
The US economy is the biggest in the world.

Industry:
The country is extremely rich in raw materials, e.g. kaolin, salt, natural gas, coal, oil, zinc, copper, lead, silver, gold, iron, mercury... The USA is practically self-sufficient. It is also the leading industrial country in:
 *  Machinery  * production of computers * chemical industry
 * Paper industry * cars and lorries industry  * ship building
The main trading partners are Canada and Japan.
Agriculture:
The US is also the leading country in agriculture and a great deal of agriculture is exported. They grow soya, maize (called corn in America), wheat, cotton, tobacco, and vegetable. The main branches of agriculture are:
Cattle breeding  - pigs breeding  - poultry farming
Currency used in the USA is American Dollar

Government
The USA is a federation of 50 states. The capitol is Washington DC (District of Columbia) and the head of state is the President. The President is elected for a four-year term and he can serve a maximum of two four – year terms in office. His seat is in the White House. Congress is the legislative body and it consists of: * the House of Representatives * the Senate

The US flag
The US national flag is known as the „ Stars and Stripes“. It has 13 white and red stripes in memory of the 13 original states that formed the USA in 1776. In that year they got their independence from Britain. There are also 50 white stars in a blue field in the upper left corner. They represent the 50 states of the union.

American dream
The „American dream“ means many different things to many different people. For some people it is the freedom of religion without feeling threatened, for others it is the dream of becoming rich and happy, for others it is living in a country where life, liberty and love are the foundation of the national life.

Places of interest in the USA:

NEW YORK
It is the biggest city of the USA and the most exciting city in the world. People often call New York  „ the Big Apple“. Its population is more than 14 million people. New York is composed of 5 major parts:
* Manhattan * Brooklyn  * Richmond  * Queens * Bronx

The Statue of Liberty
It is situated on Liberty Island and it has become a symbol of both freedom and democracy. The statue also commemorates French-American friendship. It was designed by Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi and given by the people of France to the people of America in 1886. The statue is 91.5m high from its pedestal to the torch. The Lady holds a book with the inscription „ 4th July 1776 „ – the beginning of the day of the independence.

Manhattan
It is the heart of New York, is famous of its skyline - a large number of skyscrapers on a small area. Probably the best-known feature in Manhattan was the World Trade Centre, dominated by the 110 – story twin towers. The terrorists destroyed WTC on the 11th of September 2001.
 
WASHINGTON
Washington DC is the capital of the USA. Here we can find the most important buildings in the USA:
The White House – the seat of the President
The Capitol – the seat of Congress (the federal government of the US)
The Pentagon – the centre of military forces
There are no factories and industry in Washington. The city is very clean and nice. No building can be higher than the Capitol, thus you cannot see any skyscrapers there.
 
LOS ANGELES – known for Hollywood, the centre of film industry. Here we can admire Disneyland, opened in 1955, the park opened by Walt Disney
 
Mt. RUSHMORE – is the mountain with colossal portrait heads of US presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and Roosevelt) carved by sculptor Gutzon Borghum
 
DALLAS – President John F. Kennedy was assassinated here in 1963
 
QUESTIONS
1.  When was the American continent discovered?
2.  When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
3.  Who was the first president of the USA?
4.  How many states does the USA consist of?
5.  What is the geographic location of the USA?
6.  Can you name any rivers and lakes?
7.  What is the highest peak?
8.  What does „ the American dream „ mean?
9.  Can you describe the Statue of Liberty?
10.  Characterise the most important buildings in the USA.

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