New Zealand

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Autor: ivanka88
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 25.07.2009
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 644 slov
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Geography
New Zealand is situated in south-east of Australia in Pacific Ocean It consists of two large islands (North and South Island) and many small islands. It’s bigger than Great Britain, but the density of population is quite low. Each of the two main islands is mainly hilly and mountainous, the highest peak is Mount Cook(3764 m). There is very little flatland and lowland areas only around the coast. There are many hot springs and geysers and also a lot of volcanic activity. The most spectacular volcanic area, thermal lakes and exploding geysers are on North Island. On North Island also lies the biggest lake - Taupo (over 606 sq km). Many of the New Zealand’s rivers are short and torrential and the largest river is the Wanganui (wonjenui). The South Island has many glaciers and fjords.

Because of its locality to the west of the international dateline New Zealand is one of the first countries to see the Sun at the beginning of each new day. This country is also located in a earthquake zone even near one of the major fault line, which encircles the Pacific Ocean. The climate is very pleasant and healthy. There is a lot of sun and it often rains there. Summers are not too hot and the winters are mild. There are a lot of forests of evergreen trees. The kiwi, a bird which does not fly is a national emblem and we cannot find it elsewhere. But this bird is now in great danger to becoming extinct. Also the possum - a small marsupial animal with a long tail - is very interesting creature but it causes a lot of damage to undergrowth.

Population
It covers an area of 270 000 sq km and the population is about 3.3 million inhabitants. 85 percent of inhabitants are European origin (above all British) and the rest are Polynesian. Officially language is English, but some people still speak Maori. More than 80 per cent of the population live in towns.The capital city is Wellington. It is the most important city in the country -political, commercial and geographical centre. It is in a major earthquake zone. Today most of the city consist of concrete and steel tower blocks. Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand.

History
The Maoris, a Polynesian group from the eastern Pacific, reached New Zealand before and during the 14th century. The first European to see New Zealand was the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman, who discovered its western coast in 17th century. Captain James Cook explored the coasts in about 18th century, British ships began trade with Maoris. British sovereignty was proclaimed in 1840 and the colony became a dominion in 1907. Now it is and independent member of the Commonwealth.

Political system
Like Australia, as well New Zealand follows the British pattern. This country is the member of Commonwealth with the Queen Elizabeth II as the head represented by the Governor-General. The head of government is the Prime Minister. The country is divided into 93 counties, 9 districts and 3 town districts. New Zealand is member of UN, OECD and the Commonwealth.
The flag consists of the British Union Jack in the left upper corner and four red stars in the Southern Cross constellation.

Economy
New Zealand is a rich agricultural country. The green farmlands are suitable for grazing all the year round - so this country is specialised in livestock and sheep breeding (sheep outnumber humans by more than twenty to one!). There is growed fruit and vegetables too. The industry is closely connected with agriculture. Grazing industry producing wool, food-stuff industry produced meat, butter and cheese. New Zealand is rich in oil, gas, coal and gold. The living standard is one of the highest in the world. The main trading partners of New Zealand are the USA, Australia, Japan and Great Britain.
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