Communication is way how people can express their feelings, opinions, ideas and needs. We know several forms of communication: formal and informal, one-way and two-way, written and oral and there belongs also special body language. Formal language is used especially in offices among superiors (nadriadení) and subordinates (podriadení), in business negotiation, schools and generally in public (in situations like this: when you meet a person you don’t know). People are more polite, usually use longer sentences and their vocabulary is more specific. Informal language is used among people, who know each other really well – among schoolmates, members of family, friends and colleagues. Vocabulary is typical for using different idioms. The most popular topics of communication are weather, everyday life, our problems, money, art, sport and politics.
Topics among men and women are a bit different. Whereas women talk about cosmetics, boys or men, their family, everyday life, fashion, job, household, weight, look and hair-style and also complain what to buy and how to buy it, men talk about sports, girls or women, current news from political life, cars, motorbikes, work, development of technology and science, gardening and money-especially how to earn it.
You can communicate with your friends face to face, by telephone or mobile phone. It’s unwritten or oral form of communication. When you talk to somebody face to face, it’s really advantageous, because you can see his or her reactions, gestures and postures, which express feelings and mood; this is so called body language for example when you yawn, you are tired or bored, sitting with eyes and mouth open means you are fascinated. Then you can also use some parts of body to express your ideas such as hands, fingers, face – eyes, mouth and cheeks. Then you can use different intensity of your voice – when you tell somebody your secrets you whisper so that other people can’t hear it or you can shout if somebody doesn’t hear you or you are angry with him. Then when people are in good mood they speak slowly, but when they got angry tempo of their speech is quicker.
Written communication is also divided into formal and informal. In formal you have to keep some rules and follow grammar, there belong different kinds of letters and faxes. In informal it isn’t so strict, there are used usually short sentences and idioms to express feelings and ideas of the writer. It includes letters, SMS, email and chatting on the internet. Internet is now very popular, because you can talk to people from all over the world.
All this forms represents two-way communication. In one-way you either only send or only receive information, what is typical for TV, radio, postcards, newspaper, magazines and lectures.
Some people who are handicapped like deaf and dumb use special way of communication – they use their hands - gesture language (posunková reč).
People can communicate with past (different documents, insignias, and writings on the walls) and also with future (CD’s, films, books), but there is a big problem with development of technology – people in the future maybe won’t be able to watch old films and records. Today is also very difficult to watch black and white films, because you need special apparatuses.
System of sounds, which works on some rules, is called language. People use a lot of languages, which are different from themselves in writing, reading, grammar, accent and sound. One language is usually connected with one nation. Some of them are limited, because they are used by small group of people like tribes and other can be very widespread like Chinese.
In the past there were attempts to establish one language for all people of the world such as Esperanto, but it didn’t work. Today there are several world languages – English, German, Spanish, French and Russian. English is the most spread and then Chinese especially because of a huge amount of people, who use this language. Such important position of English is narrowly connected with history of Great Britain, which had colonies in different parts of the world and this is a reason, which caused this language to spread so much. Next reason is the fact, that USA became very important after WW2. The position of English in the world is different: English as an official language (like in USA, GB, Canada and Australia), as a second language (like in South Africa and India) and as foreign language (like in our country). It’s very important to learn foreign languages so that you will be able to communicate with other people of the world, study or work abroad, make business on international level and use computers and internet.
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