Introducing Great Britain

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Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Introducing Great Britain

The official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital is London. Great Britain is a group of islands of the north-west coast of Europe. There are many islands, for example the Hebrides, the Orkneys, the Shetlands and the Man. The largest island includes the countries of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The capital of England is London, of Scotland is Edinburg, of Wales is Cardiff and of Northern Ireland is Velfast.

POPULATION

In Great Britain live about 60 millions inhabitants. English make up about 80% of population, Scottish about 10% and the rest are Welsh, Irish and the immigrants from India and Pakistan.
About 90% of people live in towns, conurbation of London, Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.
The official language is English and regionally Welsh and Gaelic. The currency is British pound. Britain is a member of EU.

SURFACE

Great Britain is divided from Europe by the English Channel. Great Britain is connected with Europe by Europe tunnel, which is 42 kilometers long. The area is about 245 000 km2. It’s surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.
Surface can be divided into: the lowland area - in southern and eastern England
the highland area - in Scotland, northern England, Wales.

The most mountainous area is Scotland. There are Kaledon Mountains or Grampiany. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis. Pennies are the back bone of England.

The lowlands are mainly on the southern England. This country is rich of rivers. Rivers are very important as a source of energy. The biggest river is the Thames. The longest river is Severn. Others important rivers are the Avon, the Clide or the Mercy.

There are a lot of lakes in the Northern Scotland and in the Lake District. Very favourite is Windermene Lake and in Scotland Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. This lake is very good known for a Loch Ness monster, which is called Nessie.
The climate is oceanic with mild winters and cool summers. It’s influenced by the Gulf Stream. The weather is very changeable and rainy.

POLITICAL SYSTEM

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The head is Queen Elizabeth II. from 1952. In practice she reigns, but doesn’t rule. Real rule is the Government. The head is the Prime Minister ( Tony Blair - Labour party ) who has the Cabinet of Ministers.
Parliament has 2 houses:
1) The Houses of Lords - the head is the Lord Chancellor. It doesn’t have elected members, the seats are hereditary.
2) The House of Commons - it consists of 650 elected members of
  Parliament. The chief officer is the Speaker.

Kurssi englannin punta (GBP) - Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta
 
Main political parties are: the Conservative party ( Margaret Thatcher )
  the Labour party ( Tony Blair )
The national flag is known as the “Union Jack”. It consists of 3 crosses and symbolizes the Union of England, Scotland and Ireland.
ECONOMY
Great Britain is economically connected with the Commonwealth countries. It belongs to the G7 countries.
The country has a very well developed agricultural system. The main agricultural products are wheat, barley, potatoes and sugar. Important animals are cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and also horses. Fishing plays also an important role.
Great Britain has a tradition in exploitation of black coal. The newly discovered deposits of oil and natural gas in the sea served also to export.
It’s one of the leading industrial countries in the world. It exports mainly machines, means of transport, chemicals, textile and oil. On the other hand it imports foodstuffs, but also machinery. The most important partners are the USA, members of the European Union and Commonwealth.
Develop transport connections Great Britain with Europe by planes, ferries and also by tunnel - Euro tunnel ( 42 km long ). In London are 3 international airports - Gatwick, Heathrow and City Airport.

PLACES OF INTEREST

LONDON - the capital and the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government and the Supreme Court. London offers a wealth of interests - from historic buildings, museums and galleries to ceremonies, parks, restaurants and shops. There are for example Tower of London, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and St. Paul’s cathedral.
BIRMINGHAM - it’s the second largest city. This is a town of museums - there is the biggest gallery in Britain - Renoir, Manet and Rubens.
LIVERPOOL - is known as a birth place of music group Beatles.
STRATFORD UPON AVON - it’s famous as the birthplace of W. Shakespeare. There is a church with the grave of William and Royal Shakespeare Theatre.
STONEHENGE - it’s a megalithic monument from Celtic time. It symbolizes mystery, power and endurance.
HADRIAN’S WALL - It separates England and Scotland. It was built in Roman Empire by the Roman emperor Hadrian.
OXFORD - it’s he seat of the oldest English university, which includes 34 colleges.
CAMBRIDGE - it’s the residence of the second oldest university in Britain
DOVER - it’s a port in the south, where are White cliffs
PORTSMOUTH - it’s the hottest part, where are seaside resorts and stone beach
HASTINGS - the place where William Conqueror’s victorious battle was held
BATH - it’s spa town
SHEFIELD - city on the east, where is the hart industry and the mining of coal
DUNDEE - famous for marmalade and cakes
YORK - the residence of the Archbishop of the Anglican Church
DEVON - the region of wild moors and granite blocks, which can be seen in the National Parks of Dartmoor and Exmoor.
LAKE DISTRICT - the region contains English glacier lakes. There are Roman forts and castles.
AVEBURY - Europe’s largest stone circle constructed in the Neolithic period
 
SCOTLAND - men wear the kilts, which is something as a skirt made of tartan and sporran. Before the people lived in clans and each clan had different tartan. National music instrument are bagpipes.
EDINBURGH - the capital of Scotland, where is the Royal Castle - dominant of the town
LOCH NESS - very famous lake because of reports of a Loch Ness monster
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