American history

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Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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American history
The first colonization - it started 15 000 years ago
- the first inhabitants of this area were Native Americans - Indians
- they came from Siberia across a land bridge to Alaska
- they settled all parts of today’s USA
- the sources of their livelihood were hunting, fishing and later agriculture
The first discovery of America continent - it was in the year 1000 A.D.
- the inhabitants were Vikings under the leadership of Leif Erickson
- they didn’t settle there, because they didn’t be able to attack to Indians
The second discovery of America continent - it was in October 1492
- the discoverer was Christopher Columbus and his expedition
- they discovered Caribbean
- Columbus wanted to find western way to India
- he proclaimed it as a Spanish territory
- from this day, America became colonial land for many European countries
Colonies - the colonial period started during the reign of Elizabeth I.
- the first colony was established in 1584 in Virginia
- all settlers died because of lack of food
- the first town was Jamestown which was built in 1607
   - other colonies were built in 17th century
Pilgrim Fathers - he came from Britain to America in 1620
- they looked for religious freedom
- they made friends with Indians and settled here
- they eat roasted turkey, apple or pumpkin pie and gave thanks God
- they celebrate the great harvest on fourth Thursday in November ( now festival )
17th century - in 1636 was founded the Harvard College
- in 1626 the Dutch bought Manhattan island form the Indians for 24 Dollars
- in 1664 the British attacked this Island and took the town of New Amsterdam
and renamed it New York
18th century - country along Mississippi become the French territory - Louisiana
- later Napoleon sold this area to USA for 15 millions dollars
- in 1754 there was a Seven Year’s War - between French and England
- after signing the peace, the French lost Canada and the American Midwest
The Boston Tea Party 1773 - the first attack
- English king pushed up the entrance duty from the colonies
- then started the war of independence of the 13 American colonies
- on 4th July 1776 was signed the Declaration of Independence which was
written by Thomas Jefferson
- the first elected president of independent USA became George Washington
- the capital became Washington D.C.
Colonies - the colonies expanded to the west and discovered the California
- northern colonies: industrial - textile factories, where worked free workers
- southern colonies: agricultural - cotton plantations, black slaves from Africa
- black slaves were unprivileged peoples without laws who must work
Gold rush - gold was found in California
- many of men became rich, but many of them died
- it changed the picture of the west, because many new towns were founded
Civil war - Abraham Lincoln wanted to abolish the slavery and was assassinated
  - there was a civil war which is called the North against the South
  - this war finished on 1866 by victory of North

Time of prosperity - after the finishing of the civil war
  - there were many inventions: Edison’s electric bulb, Bell’s telephone, railway
  - the new social rank - businessmen ( factories, banks, mining industry ) 

Great Depression - the stock market in New York crashed in 1929
  - many Americans lost their jobs and homes
  - president Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced his plan of the economic and
  social policy called New Deal

The First World War - USA wanted to stay neutral
- when German submarines sank Lusitanian, they joined war
- Americans were the ally of Great Britain

The Second World War - the emigrants from Europe came to America
- Americans wanted to be neutral
- they only supported Allies with material
- but after Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, they dropped the Atom bombs on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
   - Americans were the ally of Great Britain, France and Soviet Union
After the Second World War - began the great development of the USA
- there were two world’s superpowers - the USA and the Soviet Union
- America financially supported countries of communism
- the USA formed NATO
Cold War - war between the USA and the Soviet Union
- two conflicts between communistic and American blocks:
  1. The Korean War ( 1950 - 1953 )
  - started as a local conflict
  - the Soviet Union and China supported North Korea
  - Americans sent their troops to South Korea
  - the peace treaty was signed, but it didn’t change anything
  2. The Vietnam War ( 1960 - 1973 )
  - the North-Vietnamese attacked American destroyers at Gulf of Tonkin
  - America sent its soldiers to Vietnam
  - there died about 46 000 Americans
  - in the USA there is a Vietnam memorial
  - it meant the end worst relationship between America and Soviet Union
Afghanistan 1979 - the Union Soviet attacked Afghanistan
- the USA condemned this act
- relations between both countries were impaired
- the presidents R.W. Regan and G. Bush lessened these bad relations
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Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

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