Great Britain

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Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 05.05.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Great Britain
Great Britain is situated on the British Isles lying off the northwest coast of Europe. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest, nort and southwest, and is separated from the European continent by the North Sea, and the English Channel. On the west, the Irish sea and North Channel separate Great Britain from Ireland. The country has a mild and rainy climate, determined by the warm current of the Gulf Stream. The prevailing winds are south-westerly. Rain is regularly distributed throughout the year. The coldest months are January and February. The average temperatures are about 16 degrees. June has the best record for sunshine. During summer the temperature occasionally rises above 27 degrees in the south; winter temperatures below -7 degrees are rare.

The population of Great Britain is about 60 million people. It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The largest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds and Edinburgh. Great Britain is an industrialized country. Major industries include iron and steel engineering (including motor vehicles and aircraft), textiles, plastics, cotton, chemicals, electronics, wool, shipbuilding and food products. Coal is Britain`s leading mineral resource and coal mining is the country`s most important extractive industry. Natural gas, large quantities of which have been discovered in the North sea, is another major mineral resource. The chief agricultural products are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, sugar beet, milk, and meat.
Great Britain comprises England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. It includes four nations: English, Scotish, Welsh and Irish people. These nations differ in their way of life, customs, values and traditions.

England occupies the largest, southern part of Great Britain. The southwest and west are largely plains, hills and moors. The principal mountains are the Pennines, The Cornish Heights, The Cheviot Hills and the Cumbrian mountains. England is highly industrialised. Manchester used to be a major industrial and commercial centre, now it has a variety of industries particularly engineering. Newcastle upon Tyne  is the centre of industry based on coal, iron, steel and shipbuilding. Sheffield has concentrated on the production of iron, steel and shipbuilding. England has a very rich architecture. Many of the greatest cathedrals and churches were built between 1100 and 1500.
Wales is a largely mountainous coutnry famous for its long rivers, big lakes and high hills in the north of the country. The capital city is Cardiff. There are two languages spoken in Wales- English and Welsh, which is a Celtic language.
Scotland, situated to the north of England, also includes Orkneys, Shetlands, Hebrides and other islands. It is more than half as big as England. The capital city is Edinburgh. Scotland has been the part of Great Britain since 1707 but the Scottish people remain very independent and proud of their culture and heritage. The most beautiful part of Scotland is the region known as the Highlands. The most famous lakes are Loch Lomond and Loch Ness where the mythical monster lives. Scotland has its own law and education system. There are also special traditions in Scotland, such as playing bagpipes and wearing kilts, which are typical pleated knee-length tartan skirts. Some eating and drinking habits are different, too. There are special meals which are prepared only in Scotland. One of them is haggis, which is made of the heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep, oatmeal, salt, onions, spices, packed into a sheep´s stomach and boiled.
Northern Ireland /known also as Ulster/ occupies the northern fifth of Ireland. There is the Queen´s University at Belfast which was founded in 1845.  The capital city is Belfast.
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