Travelling (cestovanie)

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: sp-prace (12)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 31.08.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Travelling (cestovanie)
a) prípravy na cestu, dôvody, cieľ a význam cestovania (za prácou, na dovolenku, služobne)
b) dopravné prostriedky (výhody a nevýhody  jednotlivých dopravných prostriedkov)
c) individuálne a kolektívne cestovanie (spôsob a druhy dopravy, druhy ubytovania, stravovanie)
d) cestovanie kedysi  a dnes, cestovanie v budúcnosti
e) možnosti cestovania do zahraničia

a) Every day hundreds of people travel from one place to another. They travel to work, to school or because of business. Many people also travel for pleasure. Traveling abroad has recently become very popular. In every season of the year, airports, railway stations, seaports and bus stops are full of people traveling for long or short distances.Travelling is the best way, how people can get some information about foreign countries, another cultures and another ways of living. For many people travelling is a passion. People which don´t like travelling they rather stay at home and feel save. If you are abroad your country just only as a tourist, you can´t get to know a foreign country well. Tourists like staying at the seaside, lying on the beach, getting a suntan and relaxing, while others are interested in local traditions, history and culture. Many tourists like to practise a foreign language with local people. Some of the people, mainly students, are traveling in the reason to learn a foreign language. They usually live in a host family and attend there a school. It can also prepare them for a real life. Others are travelling every day to school, to work or hobbies. This type of travelling is not as fun as the others. Travelling for business can be fun for young people without families, but it is hard for these people to find a future partner.
The average Slovak family tries to go on holidays at least once a year. Some prefer winter holidays and go to Slovak or Austrian ski resorts to ski. Most people travel during the summer holidays because the weather conditions are usually favourable and children do not go to school. Some people prefer  to travel to a Slovak holiday resorts, but many choose traveling abroad. Families usually rely on a travel agency and choose a trip from a catalogue. The agency arranges everything (like travel, accommodation, insurance and a travel guide). The most frequent summer destinations for Slovaks are Croatia, Egypt, Italy, Spain or Tunisia. Last minutes or first moments offers have become extremely popular and people use them a lot. The week before you go on holiday you should make a list of everything that you are going to be taking with you. For example, you should make a list of any books you would like to take, clothes, hairdryers, towels, swimming costumes, gloves and whatever else you might need. Make sure that your passport is going to be valid at the time when you are going to be traveling.
However, there are people who prefer to travel on their own and do not need a travel agency to make arrangements for them. They book accommodation and travel on the Internet and study everything necessary before the departure. They are called backpackers and they usually get to know country better because they are in closer contacts with its people. There are more and more people for which travelling is a lifetime passion. Globe-trotters (world travelers) and travel journalists spend most of their time traveling seeking adventure and knowledge.
b) People travel in order to reach places that are close or far away, they travel for fun or for necessity.
Travelling takes up more time in our lives that most of us imagine. Everyday form of travelling may be going shopping, commuting to school, to work or visiting friends. There are two ways of travelling: one is using our own means of transport and the other is rely on the public transportation services. People and goods can be transport by land, by air or by water.
The main fact is that water transport has the relatively small costs. That is why rivers, seas, and oceans are continuously being filled with new cargo and passengers vessels. Ferries, ocean liners and other steamboats take quite a long period of time to carry you to the place of destination, though. The advantage is that one can take almost as much luggage as one likes. In general not many people
have the courage to board a ship because although the trip is not expensive they can still become sea-sick.
Unlike sea travel, going by air consumes huge sums of money but it is the fastest way of travelling. An air ticket ensures us a comfortable seat on the plane which can fly us to any place in the world within a few hours. The air transportation system is thus the one most strictly dependent on the timetable. At the airport, passengers have to show their flight tickets and passports. Their luggage is weighed and they go through the customs. For air traffic safety both people and luggage have to be checked and metal objects have to be detected. Some rules even forbid passengers from having containers  filled with any type of liquid in their hand luggage. When we are lucky and our flight is neither cancelled nor postpone we can look forward to safe landing on the runway of another airport. In the plane a steward or stewardess shows passengers their seats and give them safety information. During the flight passengers are offered some meals, refreshments and drinks. After landing, passengers disembark and go to the arrive hall, where they wait for their luggage. After showing their passport and visas to immigration officer they are free to enjoy the country where they have landed.
There is also another type of the air traveling which is helicopter.
Cars and motorbikes
Land offers the greatest variety of means of transport. There are motor road vehicles and bicycles on the one hand and rail on the other. Person vehicles, motorcycles and cars are the most popular. There are also other means of transport on four wheels- busses and trolleybuses. Of rail vehicles, which are almost exclusively designed for public use, we could mention train, trams, and the underground.
Cars and motorbikes are expensive to purchase and in addition one also has to pay for petrol, which if the vehicle has a big consumption, costs a lot of money as well. For short and middle distances a car is fast enough so as not to get too tired by travelling, unless we get into the traffic jam. Also the space for luggage in the trunk of the car is quite large. The best thing about car is that they will take you almost anywhere at any time. Modern cars with soft seats and a lot of space for the legs are sometimes even more comfortable than the interior of the plane. To get a driver’s licence one must been 18 years old, know how to drive and know the traffic rules well. One of the rules says that cars are to driven on the right side of the road. This isn’t true in Great Britain and the USA, there people drive on the left.
Buses and trains
The most frequent public means of transport are buses and trains. The network of bus and trains stops covers most inhabited places. Public transport is cheaper, but also less comfortable. They can go either between villages or towns or in the town. The bus and train stops in major cities are called stations. London is famous for its red busses called double-deckers. In our country going by train is cheaper but also slower than going by bus. An ordinary railway station looks like this: a big hall with a ticket office where one can buy a single or return ticket and the seat reservation, the departures and arrivals board, a left luggage office or lockers, telephones, waiting hall, restaurant, a drink machine, a book stall, a barber’s shop and  a lavatory. From this hall ones goes through the underpassage directly onto the right platform. From the platform we get on the train and look for free seat in the (non-)smoking compartment. If all the seats are occupied we must move into another carriage and try again there. When we seated and the train starts, we can spend the time talking with the fellow passengers, observe the landscape out of the window, eat some food, play cards with a friend or sleep. When the conductor comes we hand him the tickets and he checks them. In a lot of trains ticket machines replaced the conductor.
Coaches are buses for long-distance travel. They are fast and comfortable, with reasonable priced tickets. In our country many people prefer coaches to trains.
Underground (subway)
In big cities underground with several different tracks have been build in order to relieve the trams and buses. They are the fastest means of urban transportation and the underground trains usually go every five minutes on average. Many workers and pupils depend on the underground every morning. It can takes them at low rate from the suburbs to the city and back. The taxi (or cabs) in big cities can just be called by phone or hailed while people pass by in the street.
Many people all over the world like travelling by bike. Some go to school by bike, others prefer cycling as a sport or hobby. Many people go for cycling holidays, which is both healthy and exciting. This type of travel depends much on the weather and therefore summer is the best season for cycling tours.
Young people usually have not much money and they use hitchhiking. It is the cheapest way of transport but also the slowest and quite dangerous. Many people can be robbed and girls can be abused. Some people love more romantic means of transport, e. g. going on a yacht, canoeing, gliding, hot-air, ballooning, windsurfing, skateboarding or roller-skating. In Europe it is very popular now to travel by residential cars in which you can have everything for your personal use.
c) We can also dividing traveling by the number of people on - Individual
- Collective
It is normal when people individual commuting to school or work, but some people also prefer to go on holidays alone. Solo travel can be the ultimate in self-indulgence; you can rest when you want and pour it on when you're feeling ambitious. Another benefit is that your mistakes are your own, and your triumphs all the more exciting. There's no worrying that your insistence on trekking all the way across town to a museum that was closed ruined your partner's day; it's your own day to salvage or walk up to a learning experience. Of course, single travel has its perils too - such as safety concerns, loneliness and the dreaded single supplement.

Most of the people prefer collective travelling. Since we were at school we went on some school trips or excurses in the groups. Normally we went on the holidays with our families or friends, because with more people around one can feel safer and in collective is always better fun.
The way how you spend your holidays depends mainly on money. If you have a lot of money, you can go everywhere you want, with full service provided by travel agency which you choose. But if not, you can find right way how to have great holidays without travel agency with their full service such as luxury hotel, delicious food and another. You can try to travel on your own and stay for example at a campground or in rented bungalow or stay everywhere you want to. You have got freedom. You can do what you want and when you want on your own.

There’s new type of holiday called ´home swapping´. That means, that you can exchange your home with home of family from another country. In my opinion it’s good deal, because you pay nothing for accommodation and as soon as you come to this your ´new  home´ you become a part of community with host’s friends and neighbors. But sometimes it is also dangerous, because at the beginning you maybe know where are you going but do not know what can you expect from surroundings.
When travelling on vacation we should look for accommodation appropriate to our demands. In the first place there are hotels and motels which differ in price and comfort (both are on a slightly lower level in motels). Before our arrival we should make a reservation, book a room in such a hotel. We can get a bed and breakfast or full board at daily or weekly rate. All this can be taken care of reception desk where the desk clerk arranges everything necessary. Then we can enjoy our stay with help of some of the hotel’s services- a restaurant, a bar, a coffee shop, a travel desk and a beauty salon or sports facilities like a swimming pool or a fitness center. In these hotels you can pay all inclusive packet and you can eat and drink whatever you want.
The motels are situated mostly by roads. The guests can park their car at the door of their own room. A special kind of accommodation for young people is youth hotel (mainly in GB) where it is possible to stay overnight at the low rate but only for a limited number of times.

d) Travelling has undergone many changes. With the development of human society and their needs to get from one place to another has developed travelling, too. Various inventions are closely attached to the development of travel techniques and methods. In the ancient times, people travelled on their own by their foot. They had to go to places where a lot of grass was, where their animals could feed on it. Later, people leant how to domesticate wild animals and used horses. But many years had to pass when the Sumerian wise men discovered wheel. The wheel was a groundbreaking discovery. It was maybe the most useful invention. It served as base to chariots, wheelbarrows, cars and much other widely used equipment these days. People learnt how to rule the seas and built ships. These were powered by wind, human power, and later steam engines and combustion engines. The Wright brothers developed the first useful plane in 1903. Since that time, the air traveling has become a perfect alternative for long-distance destinations. Nowadays, the traveling is well developed. Countries use sophisticated and high-tech ways to transport people and goods. Travel analysts try to estimate tourist destination that will be popular in the future and describe future forms of travel. They say that Slovak can be expected to be a popular holiday destination for its national scenery and outdoor sports potentials. Therefore, we need to invest a lot of money into the infrastructure and tourist services. They also say that there will be new types of tourist destinations- aquatic and cosmic. Flying high above the Earth in airship or staying at an underwater luxury hotel could become a part of our future summer holidays. The further research of space traveling may lead to interstellar or even intergalactic journeys. The big question for the scientist remains the possibility of teleportation. It could allow any matter to be transported with the speed of light. The development of transportation and traveling went hand-in-hand with people’s growing needs to go faster and further. The world without transportation is unimaginable.
e) Before 1989, Slovaks were basically allowed to travel only to Eastern European countries, Eastern Germany, Bulgaria, Romania and the former Yugoslavia. Nowadays, Slovaks mostly travel abroad to study, to work or on holidays. After Slovakia joined the EU in 2004, many Slovaks have found work abroad. As the number of scholarships has increased, more and more Slovak secondary school and university students spend a year or a semester abroad. Many Slovak people do not need passports anymore to travel to EU countries, they only need their identity cards. However, there are countries outside the EU we still need a visa to go to.
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