Man and society

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123 (26)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 13.09.2013
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 2 059 slov
Počet zobrazení: 10 618
Tlačení: 393
Uložení: 371
Praktické!

Man and society
 
Pictures
- Describe the pictures. Discuss what kind of help each of these people might need. How can society help?

- Look at the pictures of different crimes. Put them in order of seriousness. Do you have any experience with them?

- Look at the picture. Describe it. What qualities should the person in the picture have? What does he/she do in his/her job?

- Look at the picture. Do you think the people are tolerant towards minorities?

- What do you think the man may have done to have been sent to dead?

- Would you accept the person to be your friend? Why? Why not?

- Describe the picture. Do you think women are better than men in this kind of occupation?

- Describe the picture. What do these people raise money for? Who do they support? What are other purposes of raising money? Would you like to work as a volunteer?

 
Discussion
- Do you give money to people on the street who beg? How can a person lose their home? What may be the reasons?
- Do you think the death penalty should be given for serious crimes? What type if crimes would deserve it?
- What do you think about the rules at our school? Would you change any of them?
- What rules are there in your school, do you agree or disagree with them?
- What minorities are discriminated against in our country? How are Gypsies treated differently from other Slovaks?
- Do you think the death penalty should be given for serious crimes?
- What do you think of breaking traffic laws, for example speeding?
- Describe social customs and etiquette in Slovakia with regard to meetings, invitations, greetings, celebrations, etc.
- Compare some everyday/business habits of different nationalities.
- What rules are there in your school? Do you agree or disagree with them? Do you think that it is enough for children and young people to learn how to behave in Ethics or Religious Education classes?
- Give your opinion whether rules are important in a functional society. Does the society have an influence on family?
- How should the society punish serious crime? How should it punish minor offences? Give examples.
- Do you agree that all people should have equal rights and duties? Should the society help people in need, i.e. homeless, disabled people, etc.? How? Why not?

 
Role-plays and simulations
- What advice would you give your foreign business partners coming to Slovakia for the first time? Think about different nationalities and situations. /Simulation/

- You are a member of a jury which is going to sentence a criminal to death. You are against the death penalty. What arguments do you have to persuade the other members of the jury? /Role-play/

- How would you help the group of people /the homeless, the criminals, the drug addicts/ and which activities would you organize for them? /Simulation/

4. What activities would you organize for the young people in your town /at school? /Simulation/
 
5. What would you change if you could be the prime minister? A: You are a journalist and you are going to interview the leader of a political party about their manifesto and election platform. B: You are the leader of a political party. Be prepared to answer the journalist’s questions about your manifesto and election platform. Use the following ideas: ask the EU for more money, introduce school fees, increase the salaries of state employees, build more motorways, pay official visits to foreign countries, reduce taxes. /Role-play/
 
6. Talk about good table manners. /Simulation/
 
Človek a spoločnosť
- morálka /správanie sa mladých a starších ľudí, etická výchova v rodine a v škole/
- spoločenská etiketa – stretnutia, pozdravy, blahoželania, etiketa návštev – dôvody, čas, témy rozhovorov, pohostenie
- normy a ich porušovanie /morálka a zákon, nedorozumenie a konflikt/
- prejavy záujmu a pomoci spoluobčanom v núdzi, sponzorstvo a sponzori /dôvody a podoby/
- vplyv spoločnosti na rodinu
 
A.
Humans, from the very beginning, were not able to live on their own and so started to form a bigger group. These organised groups created their system of laws and accepted behaviour which can be defined as a society. These laws and behaviour make it possible for people to live together.
Society takes care of its members. Many countries support the idea of government, money paid to people who are unemployed. While some people think that this social security is too low, others do not agree with somebody receiving money but not trying to find work and make a lot of claims for money of other taxpayers. The social work of government is aimed at improving bad social conditions and helping people in need.
According to modern anthropology, homosexuality has existed in all societies throughout human history and prehistory. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that homosexuality is widespread in the animal world. It must therefore be considered both ´normal´ and ´natural´. Indeed, most cultures have shown a reasonable level of tolerance towards homosexuals.
A number of controversial issues surround the debate about gay rights. One is the practice of outing. This is the revelation that a public figure is homosexual by gay activists. This practice goes totally against the idea that homosexuality should be discrete. Another issue that causes a lot of controversy in society is whether homosexual couples should be allowed to adopt children.
Ethics is the study of morals which deals with moral rules or principles of behaviour governing a person or group. Ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that set as rules what humans should do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness or specific virtues. Ethical standards also include those that encourage virtues of honesty, compassion and loyalty. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy.

B.
Etiquette can be defined as the formal rules of correct or polite behaviour in society or among members of a particular profession. There are certain rules how to be polite greeting each other. Younger people greet older, men greet women etc.
There are some special conventions for how to behave in certain places, e.g. women covering their heads or shoulders when entering a church, men taking off hats in a church or women wearing knee-length skirts for business and diplomacy. 
Being respectful and considerate of others is the main idea behind rules of behaviour. Here are some etiquette tips for going to the theatre:
-  avoid being late, turn up at the theatre a couple of minutes early
-  if you arrive late, wait patiently until there is a break in the performance
-  turn off cell phones, pagers and other electronic devices
-  do not talk, whisper, drink or eat during the performance
-  use the restroom during the intermission
-  during curtain call, do not rush for the exits
Manners are taught as soon as your child understands what you are saying, but they will need coaching and reminders on manners throughout their childhood. When the child does something right let them know, when your child does something wrong, do not be negative about it, but gently tell them how to do it better and why. Here are some basic manners for young people:
-  wait your turn and do not interrupt other people when they are speaking
-  always greet someone when they come over to your house
-  say please and thank you often, it shows respect and appreciation
-  clean up after yourself
-  don’t stuff your mouth full of food, it looks disgusting and you could choke
-  don’t make any rude comments about any food being served

Etiquette at the table 
At  the  table  you  have to  behave  according  to  social  principles.  You shouldn’t start eating before other people have served and leave the table immediately after the dinner.
In some countries table manners are similar and in England and Slovakia too.  It’s considered rude to eat and  drink noisily, to wipe the plate  with bread, to pick at food  with hands, to read at the  table, to rest your elbows at the  table, to  reach  across  the  table  in  front of  people.  When we need something we have to ask another person to give it us. Also you have to ask permission if you want to smoke between courses or anywhere in other people’s home. In Slovakia people usually smoke in the balcony or in a room for smokers. Never clink glasses when drinks are served before meals. It will be considered impolite if you yourself are entertained and do not talk to your neighbours on your right and left. Make your food last till the other have nearly finished eating so that you all finish at the same time.
At the formal dinner the cutlery is placed in the order in which it will be used. The fork is laid on the left side of the plate with points up. On the right side of the plate are laid knife and spoon. The knife is first and with blade to the plate and then the spoon. The dessert spoon and fork are laid on the top of the place setting. The glass should be on the right and the bowl for stewed fruit on the left side above the fork. When you finish eating the knife and fork should be laid side by side in the middle of your plate and plate can be removed. If you leave them apart, it will show that you have not yet finished eating. You `re supposed to thank for the meal but it’s not so expected as in Britain.
Whenever a gentleman accompanies a lady along the street, he walks between her and the road full of traffic. A gentleman always raises his hat to a lady but seldom to a man.  People do not shake hands so often; they just say "Hello" without touching. But in our country when people meet together they always shake their hands, especially men.
Kissing is not common as a form of greeting unless know someone well. People usually kiss on both cheeks.
People wait in queues at bus stops or elsewhere in a quiet and discipline manner.  They do not speak loudly. In Slovakia in shops and at bus stops you have to go to the back of the queue and wait.  If you `jump the queue`, other people will angrily tell you to wait your turn.
When  you visit  Slovakia be  prepared to  meet friendly  and generous  people,  who  may  invite  you  into  their  homes. When you are invited to somebody’s home you don’t have to take present but you can. For  example: If you go  there for  the first  time or you haven’t  be there for a long time the  hostess will be pleased when she get a box of chocolate or a bunch of flowers.  When the host is a man a present suitable for him would be a bottle of wine or alcohol.
In England people are invited to dinner by phone. It will be polite to ask them if you might come. If you arrange to meet someone, try not to be more than a few minutes late, because punctuality is important.
It`s impolite to ask someone how much they ear or how much they paid for something unless you know someone well.
When we are invited to dinner to a good restaurant or to home it is suitable for men to wear suit, jackets and ties and women should smartly dressed. If the woman is student and the man is working, the man should pay her share of the bill, but when they are not working, I think they should pay for each share by themselves.

C.
Society has a right to obey the law. If anybody does not and they are a danger to society, they can be locked up. Most people support the idea that the punishment should fit the crime which means that a person should be punished very severely for a serious crime and less severely for a lesser crime. During the trial, lawyers question witnesses to discover the truth. Witnesses take an oath to tell the truth by putting their right hand on a Bible. While some crimes are not so serious, like stealing, shoplifting, others threaten human life – robbery, burglary, mugging, kidnapping, hijack, murder etc.
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