Mass media and technology

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča babuska (23)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 12.09.2015
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Mass media and technology

Newspapers

The first form of mass media started after the printing press was invented in Germany in 1450. Many copies of simple newspapers and posters were quickly printed, which could then be distributed to many people. Newspapers are still one of the most important forms of mass media.

There are two kinds:
o 1. QUALITY PAPERS (serious newspapers) that aim at (zaměřit se na) the educated reader. They contain detailed news comment, editorials, many topics written by experts in their field, the Arts and literary reviews.
  The US
  USA Today, Wall Street Journal, New York limes, Washington Post, etc.
  The UK
  The Times, The Telegraph, The Guardian, The independent, etc.
o 2. TABLOIDS (popular newspapers) printed on sheets that are half the size of larger papers. They have a lot of gossip (drby) about famous people, etc., and not much serious news.
  The US
  The National Enquirer, Star Magazine, Globe, etc.
  The UK
  The Daily Mirror, The Sun, The Daily Mail, the Express, etc.

Radio

  Print media was the only form of mass communication until the invention of the radio in about 1914. In the US Radio became popular in America with about 60,000 radios in 1922 which grew to 10 million radios by 1929. The first radio stations were created by companies who made radios. People bought a lot of radios so the companies had enough moneey to build many radio stations and they didn‘t need advertisements. Later, when other companies wanted to start stations the only way they could pay for it was by selling advertisements. In the US, radio was a business. NPR (National Public Radio) is a nationwide non-commercial radio.

In the UK the radio was paid for by charging a yearly fee to people who owned radios. This is called noncommercial or public broadcasting. The money was given to a government company called the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The radio stations in the UK - national (non-commercial): Radio One, Radio Two, Radio Three, Radio Four. Local radio stations: Radio Cambridgeshire and Radio Devon, etc. Commercial radio stations: Classic FM, Pirate FM and many more broadcast in cities, especially London.
 

Television

The next mass medium was television (TV) that started to be popular in about 1940. Broadcast TV was important because people could see images and sounds. In the US - By 1950, there were only three national stations in the US: NBC, CBS and ABC (which was smaller). Around 1990, when many people had cable TV (CATV) with many channels and many choices, channels needed to specialize, like CNN with only news or MTV with only music. Advertising started to specialize too. For example, rich people watch the Golf Channel more than poor people, so the advertisements, or ads, are produced for richer viewers on this channel. In the UK - The main broadcaster is the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Channels BBC One and Two are public broadcasting channels, paid for by license fees. Other BBC channels can be accessed through digital channels and cable. ITV (Independent Television) and Channels Four and Five are commercial stations and carry advertising.
 

The Internet

While the number of Internet users has grown vary fast around the world, it is still not as common as newspapers or television. If is more like cable TV, but instead of having hundreds of channels, the Internet has 10 Billion different pages to choose from. Another new mass media feature of the Internet is that anybody can have a Web page. This is giving almost every person on the planet a chance to broadcast information to the whole world.
The Internet/the Net is a system connecting (= linking) millions of computers worldwide around the world). In order to get online (= become connected) you must connect your computer to a phone line using a modem. You also need an Internet Service Provider (ISP), e.g. aol, free serve. On the Internet, there are different search engines you can use such as ‘Yahoo‘ or ‘Excite‘ to find what you are looking for. When you go online (= use the Internet), you can browse (= bok at) different websites and download stuff from the Internet. (= move data from one computer to another)
 

Mass media

The television belongs to the most popular media in the world. There are about 1000 channels. Each country has different channels, but there are some channels, which you can see anywhere. Sometimes they are a little bit different, but the main reason, why are the there is same. To these channels belong MTV, the world most popular music channel, CNN; there are just news, which are going on in the world and some educational channels.
MTV is separated into MTV Europe, American MTV and French, Italy, German MTV and etc.

The highest grated show on the MTV is TRL. But why is this show so famous? There is a simple answer. It is just cool. It is about what is going on in the world, about movies, music, games and about everything what are young people interested in. There just famous actors, groups, actresses, singers and the other.

CNN is the world news channel. There you can find everything what you need for your life. There are weather, sports news, business news, world news. There you can find information about for example education, immigration, investments. Everything you need is separated into shows. This channel is very important for example for exchange, international trade.
But these two are just a beginning of long chain.

Over 99 per cent of British homes have TV and that is same in a rest of west mature civilization. In Britain is very famous channel BBC. BBC is separated into BBC 1, BBC 2, BBC prime, etc. BBC 1 tends to broadcast very popular programs like recent films, game shows, sports and soaps. BBC 2 shows programs which usually attract much smaller audience. These are TV plays classical concerts, foreign films, etc. 
 
Charles Darwin – English scientist who developed the modern theory of evolution and proposed the principle of natural selection
Thomas Alva Edison – American inventor with over 1000 patents – electric bulb, system of electric power distribution, telephone transmitter
Alexander Graham Bell – Scottish inventor, who patented his invention of the telephone
Ernest Rutherford – his main research was in the field of radioactivity, and he discovered alpha, beta and gamma rays, he named the nucleus
Albert Einstein - German born US physicist. Re profoundly influenced science in many fields, such as radiation physics and thermodynamics, but is best known for formulating the theories of relativity (1905 and 1915). He is also distinguished for his work for peace and justice. He received the Nobel Prize In 1921. In 1911 he became a lecturer in theoretical physics in Prague.
James Dewey Watson - American biologist whose research on the molecular structure of DNA and the genetic code, in collaboration with Francis Crick, earned him a shared Nobel prize in 1962.

Space Flights

Space flights represent a special application of modem technology and science. The first satellites were launched into orbit around Earth in 1957 by the Russians and soon the first man-operated spacecraft was put into orbit. In 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space aboard the spacecraft Vostok 1. In a few years manned missions to the Moon were achieved, the first being Apollo 11. The first people to step onto the Moon‘s surface on 2Oth July 1969 were Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. At present artificial satellites are used for sciatic purposes, communications, weather forecasting and military purposes.
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