English history to 1603

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 23.06.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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1. The oldest inhabitants
The first Homo Sapiens Sapiens lived there between 40,000 BC and 10,000 BC. This age is called Old Stone Age. They were hunters.
About 3,000 BC came there other people. They settled along the western shores of England. They brought cattle , sheep, goats , pigs and also seed corns.

They introduced to Britain farming and new crafts – stone tools, pottery , making flint , axes. They are included into the age called New Stone Age. They were also unwarlike and they lived in tribes.
In 2,000 BC other tribes begun to arrive from Spain. They settled in southern England. They knew metals and therefor they mine gold and copper . They also produced bronze and they made weapons with it. For example : hoes , spades , knives and daggers. This age is called Bronze Age. They lived in tribes too, but they buried their dead in round barrows . They are known as Iberians. It can be taken as the first real civilisation. They built prehistoric temples Avebury and Stonehenge. These temples were used by high society called druids. They were something like a priest.

Stonehenge – a huge circle of standing stones. It was built probably in 2000 BC near Salisbury. The purpose of it isn’t known, but it could be an astronomical church or a place for people to say their prays to God.

2. Celts
They came in 8th century and they overrun the other tribes. They came from Germany and Netherlands. They were very warlike people and they were all the time fighting. They arrived in three waves. The first wave were Geals (arrived between 800 BC and 700 BC). The second were Britons
(arrived between 600 BC and 500 BC). The third were Belgae who came 100 BC. They came with iron so that age is called Iron Age.

3. Romans
They first invade England in 55 BC with a Gaius Julius Caesar as a leader, but they were not successful. 10 AD the Celtic ruler Cunobelinus conquered all the tribes in England and make his seat Colchester. He had very good terms with Romans. After his death the roman emperor called Claudius invade in 43 AD England for the 2nd time. He was successful and he conquered England. Romans ruled England for 2 centuries. They left behind them three main things. They established cities, roads and the came with Christianity ( in 597 by St. Augustine). The cities after them are named usually with end „-chester“ or „-easter“. During the reign of Romans the Hadrian wall was built. Emperor Hadrian built this wall to protect the country (123 AD).

4. 5th century
From the 5th century there were many invaders. The most common were Anglo-Saxons and Jutes. They were coming from Northern Europe especially from Germany and Denmark. They accepted the Latin way of life. They took their arts, language, political organisation and they converted to Christianity. They also divided Britain into small kingdoms (7). Than the Romans invade again and they plunder the land. The only king who was fighting against them was Arthur.
After his death the Britons were driven to Wales, Cornwall and Devon. Angles were the biggest tribe now. The land was called after them Anglia. The best known from Anglo-Saxon kings was Alfred the Great. He stopped the Danes, and made peace with them

5. The Vikings
In the 11th century the Danish king Canute managed to unite the Anglo-Saxons and Danes. The England became a part of Scandinavia. Vikings were attacking England since 8th to 11th century. But the Anglo-Saxon empire was restored by Edward the Confessor. He was very weak ruler so he wasn’t the real ruler. The real ruler was Harold Godwin. When Edward died Harold was chosen the king. This period is called Medieval England. With this decision was very upset William, the Duke of Normandy. He was Edward’s cousin, and he claimed that he had been nominated to obtain the throne. He took his army and he went to England. In 1066 he met with an army of Harold Godwin near Hastings. William had stronger army with archers and knights, so he won. After the battle he went to London and he was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey in England.
This period was for England like a breakpoint. William brought with him to England feudal system and French language. He also divided the land among Norman nobles .

6. 12th century

The greatest conflict during this century was a conflict between Church and State. The king Henry II wanted to reign without church he established new laws and orders and juries system. He made his best friend Archbishop of Cantebury Thomas Becket. He thought that Thomas would hold the church. But Thomas soon argued with Henry and left country. After his return Henry II executed him.

7. 13th century
The king was Richard the Lionheart, but he was very warlike so he was all the time fighting against Egyptian ruler Saladin. He also died in the battle in France. After him John the Lackland was crowned a king. He was forced to sign the document called Magna Charta (1215), because he wanted to increase taxes without parliament. This document limited the absolute power of the king and gave more freedom to the barons. During his reign there was also the first summon of the House of Commons. He lost also a lot of land in France.
The next king Henry III continued in Parliament. It was meeting of the king, his barons and servants. They were discussing problems. Simon de Monfort assumed House of Commons in 1265 for the first time.

8. Hundred years war (1337 – 1453)
The 14th century was for England quite difficult. In 1348 there was a plague (Black Death)
Which reduced population by 1/3. Edward III was the king and he thought that he had the right to be on the French throne, because her mother was a French princess. He was fighting with a Joan of Arc more than 100 years. England won some battles, but French were stronger and they won.
This war was for England very devastating. They had problems in economy.

9. The wars of roses (1455 – 1485)
After the end of hundred years war it wasn’t the reel end of the problems. The throne was free, so two noble families started to struggle for the possession of the throne. They started in 1455. The families were called York and Lancaster and both have in the emblem roses ( white and red ). They ended when the last York Richard III was killed in the battle of Bosworth field. Than Henry VII united two rival houses by marrying Eliz of York. So this established Tudor dynasty.
There were two important rulers in Tudor’s dynasty. The first one was Henry VIII, the son of Henry VII, and his daughter Elizabeth I. The period of Tudor reign is called Renaissance.

10. Henry VII (1509 – 1547)
- he has six wives
- he united England and Wales
- he was learned and very ambitious
- he created the royal navy
- he established the church of England, because the Pop didn’t want to allow him the divorce with his first wife

11. Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603)

- during her reign the time called golden age
- a lot of outstanding personalities (Shakespear, Marlow, Spencer)
- England was center of trade roads ( because America was discoverd)
- outstanding discovers – Drake, Releigh
- strong Navy power
- establishing new colonies
- parliament became the real parliament
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