New Zealand

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Autor: sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 24.06.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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New Zealand is an insular state in the south-western part of the Pacific. It is about 1600 kilometres south-east of Australia. It covers an area of about 250 00 sq. kilometres. It has also  some small territories in the Pacific (e.g. Tokelau, Cook Islands etc.). N.Z. is larger than GB but the density of the population is very low. Its population is about 3,5 million. About 90 percent of the inhabitants are of European origin. The rest are mostly Maoris.
N.Z. consist of two islands: North Island and South Island. Cook Channel separates both islands.

The capital is Wellington. The Queen of England has been the head of N.Z. since 1952. Wellington, the capital, lies on North Island. The biggest city is Auckland situated in the North of North Island.

The surface of the whole island is rather mountainous. The only plain region is in the East of the island. There are several hot springs volcanoes in North Island. Two of them are continually active. In South Island there are lot of lakes of glacial arraigns and in the North Island there are a lot of lakes of volcanic origin.

The largest lake is Taupo the area of which is 606 sq. km. We can find Taupo in North Island. The longest river is the Waitkato and it flows out of Taupo. Many rivers are short and torrential.

The biggest mountains are Mount Cook 3764m high (South Island) and Ruapehu 2700 m high (North Island). The climate is mild with periods of rains (called the rains). The summers are warm with long sunshine and the winters are mild especially in the North Island. The snow falls only in the amphibian. Neither are there any beasts of pray.

Agriculture is an important part of the country's economy. The most wide-spread is sheep and cattle breeding for meat and wool. This meat and wool are produced especially for export. Fishing is also wide-spread.
New Zealand is not rich in minerals, (extensive forest, natural gas, coal) but they are sufficient. Foreign trade with Japan, Australia and USA (food industry, engineering) is of special importance.
The children there must attend school from the age of 6 to the age of 15. The education is free of charge. There are also 7 universities on N.Z. The official language is English and the unit of currency is one New Zealand dollar ($NZ).

New Zealand was discovered in the years between 800 -1000. The first population were Maois, who came from the Polynesia Islands. The first European who arrived in the islands was the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasmann but the islands were officially discovered by James Cook from 1769 to 1770.
In 1907 N.Z. was granted the status of DOMINION.
System of government: follows British pattern
- the Crown is represented by a Governor General who appoints an Executive Council headed by the Prime Minister.
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