Czech Republic - History

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 25.06.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Praktické!
German’s tribes were at place, where is Czech republic and other sates now, to the 5th century AD. Then Slavonic tribes came from the east and reached place of Czech republic in th 6th cen.
In the 7th century Sámo’s empire arose. Sámo was franc merchant won became ruler of Slavonic. After his death his empire fell down.
In time between 7th and 9th centuries lived famous Czech princes, like Přemysl a Libuše.

Prince Mojimír I established new empire called Velká Morava in 830. Mojimír’s nephew Rostislav ruled after him. He invited evangelists Konstantin (Cyril) and Metoděj in 863. They evangelized, translated Bible and made character for Slavonic called Hlaholice. During the reign of  Mojimír II was Velká Morava destroyed by Hungarians.
Czech state formed by Bořivoj I. at the end of the 9th century became successor of Velkomoravská říše ( Big Moravian empire). Bořivoj was the first ruled of Přemysl dynasty.

He and his wife Ludmila converted to Christianity. Nxt ruler Václav was very educated and peaceful. He founded church of saint Vít and paid duty to king Jindřich I. Ptáčník so that there would be no war between them. But Czech nobility and Václav’s brother Boleslav didn’t agree with it. So Boleslav murdered Vaclav and became prince. In time of rule of Boleslav II. Bishopric was founded in Prague. He also killed off clan of Slavníkovci except bishop Vojtěch. After him several man fought for Czech throne. The winner was Břetislav I. He made law which meant that the oldest man of Přemysl dynasty automatically became prince. Vratislav II. founded bishopric in Olomouc. He helped emperor Jindřich IV and therefor Vratislav II was created king. He was the first Czech ruler who became king, but title of king was only for him. It was not hereditary so his son was prince again. Vladislav II. gave emperor Fridrich I. Barbarosa military help when emperor fought in Italy. In return for this help Vratislav II got title of king in Regensburg but again this title was not hereditary. In 1197 Přemysl I. Otakar became prince. He introduced primogeniture system in Czech state, it meant that next ruler would be son of actual ruler. Přemysl I. Otakar was the first Czech ruler who acquired hereditary title king. It was signed in document called Gold Bull Sicilian in 1212. After Přemysl I. Otakar died his son Václav became king. Under Václav’s rule Czech state spent economic rise. Přemysl Otakar II. was called king gold and iron because he was very good warrior so he gain a lot of land and Czech country became rich. He died at battle on Moravian field in 1278. His son Václav II. became king when he was 12. Under his rule Czech state still expanded. He introduced new coin called groš. In 1306 his son Václav III. was murdered very young so had no children. It is the end of rule of Přemysl dynasty.

In 1310 got Jan Lucemburský Czech country from his father emperor Jindřich VII. But Jan had conflicts with Czech nobility so lived in France. He got nickname “King Foreigner”. At the end of his life he fought with France against England in 100 years war. He died at battle near Kresčak. His son Karel was educated in France. He was responsible for advancement Prague bishopric to archbishopric, basilica of saint Vít was rebuilt to gothic cathedral. He also became Czech king. In 1355 he became emperor. He was the fourth emperor of this name so he was called Karel IV.  He introduced Prague as a cultural and political centre of west Europe. He founded Prague University in 1348, let build new stone bridge over river Vltava named Charles bridge and castle Karlštejn and  let make new royal crown. Under rule of Václav IV  there was not admired in Czech country so that he was ejected from throne of emperor. He edited document called Dekret kutnohorský in 1409. This patent changed rate of votes at Charles University, Czech had three and other only one. On 6th July 1415 master Jan Hus was burned to death. Then the action of Hussites called defenestrace followed. Hussites went to town hall and threw all councillor from a window. When king Václav got advice about Hussites action he had heart attack and died. After Václav should be king Zikmund Lucemburský. But Hussites did not want that Zikmund became king so there began war between Zikmund and Hussites. Hussites were led by very good general Jan Žižka and were not defeated until battle near Lipany in 1434. After the war Zikmund became king. Zikmund Lucemburský died next year. Then there was 14 years without any ruler in Czech country. The next famous ruler was Jiří z Poděbrad. He was fighting for a Czech throne. Jiří fought against his son-in-law Matyáš Korvín, who was supported by pope. The war finished when Jiří z Poděbrad died. The next famous was Ludvík Jagellonský. He was crowned Czech king when he was three. He united Czech state with Hungary. He died at battle near Moháč where he fought against Turkish. He had no heir so next Czech king had to be elected.

Czech parliament voted Ferdinand Habsburský. This process meant beginning of rule of Habsburg dynasty on Czech throne, there staid for 400 years. The next king, Rudolf II liked astrology, alchemy, magic and art. During his rule there were outstanding personalities e.g. E.Kelley, J.Dee, Tycho de Brahe, J.Kepler in Prague. From this time came legend about Golem made by rabbi Löw. Rudolf II had big collections of art and inventions. In 1618 the second Prague’s /defenestration / began the thirty years war. Catholic and non-Catholic fought against themselves at the battle on White Mountain in 1620. Catholic won, so Ferdinand II became king. He announced Catholicism as only one religion and let execute 27 of Czech lords who fought against him in 1620. In 1627 non-Catholic had to leave Czech state or convert to Catholicism. It meant that the most of property in Czech owned foreign nobility. During his reign and after the absolutism triumphed. Charles VI was the last man in Habsburg dynasty so his main problem was his heir. He had a child but it was woman and so he made document which said that if there be no man in Habsburg dynasty, so woman can be ruler.

And it happened. Marie Terezie became empress. She was very good educated. She reformed state administration, judiciary and education. She introduced compulsory school attendance. She ruled together with hes first-born son Josef II. After her death Josef II. became emperor. He liked to travel incognito, under name Falkenstein. He was very popular. The next ruler František was not so liberal like his father or grand father. He had to fight against French emperor Napoleon. František I. defeated him together with Russia. He again introduced absolutism. During revolution in 1848 František Josef I. became emperor. He defeated the revolution. That the World.
War I. started. The war began in 1914 and there fought Germany and Austro-Hungarian federation against France, Great Britain, Russia. During the war Italy converted to France, Great Britain and Russia and the United State of America joined also with these states. HoweverGermany and Austro-Hungarian federation were defeated two years later and it meant the end of the empire. Hungary constituted their own state.

Czech constituted state together with Slovaks named Czechoslovakia in autumn 1918. At the birth of Czechoslovakia there was one of outstanding Czech personalities of all times Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. After founding the Czechoslovakia Republic he became the first president. He was president till 1935. Czechoslovakia became full democratic state. After T.G.Masaryk, Edvard Beneš became president. It was difficult time for Czech nation because of Germany. At congress in Munich in 1968 there was made convention that part of Czechoslovakia became German.

After a year the World War II began. Edvard Beneš went to London where he found exile government in 1940. In Czechoslovakia the was president Emil Hácha, he made what Hitler wanted. Early after the end of the war, in 1945, he died. Edvard Beneš became president again. But he resigned because of communists supported by J.V.Stalin in 1948. Klement Gottwald was leader of Czech communistic party, so he became president. It was the beginning of socialistic system in our country. People who wanted democracy were arrested and executed. Next presidents were Antonín Zápotocký, Antonín Novotný, general Ludvík Svoboda and Gustav Husák became president, he was the first Slovak in this function. He resigned in 1989 after revolution in November. This revolution gave back democratic principles to our country. Next president of Czechoslovakia was dramatist and writer Václav Havel. He fought against communism whole life. He was one of authors of document Charta 77 for which he was constrained for several years. On 5th July 1990he became president of Czechoslovak Federative Republic and after break of this republic into Czech and Slovak Republic he became president of Czech Republic on 1st January 1993.
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