The UK - London
Typ práce: Referát
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The UK - London
First of all , I´d like to say something about (generaly) capitals. There are young capitals , which were built especially for serving as capital( Washington) , another young cities get title because of some political or cultural changes. Some cities sometimes become capitals not due to their importance , „but because people aren´t able to choose another one(F.e. in Australia - Sydney as well as Melbourne have been so imporatnt and large , that Canberra has become the capital).But there are also cities which have always been the largest and „ the most important ones“ , the heart of that country. Those can be f.e. Prague or London.
London is the capital of England and the U.K.. It is th 9th largest city in the world. It has population of about 10 million together with its all suburbs. Its area is about 3 times larger than area of Prague. London has always been symbol of the UK. When I think about the UK one of many things, I imagine, is London as (characteristical) symbol of pride and honesty of the British. It is also symbol of British power- London hasn´t been occupied almost 1000 years. We can find in history many evidences about London´s importance. For example during WW II., during Battle of Britain, what was the worst period in british history , the German Luftwaffe attacked London and destroyed large areas of the city.But this fact enabled RAF to counter attack and win this battle. So we can say that London saved whole UK., because London attracted the whole power of german air force.
London is situated on the river Thames . It was founded by Romans as „ Londinium“ in 43 A.D.Originally Westminster and London were separated areas but linked together in the 11th century. London grew very quickly and in the 19th century it was the largest city in the world ( in population). We can find there many interesting things such as the oldest underground in the world. Nowadays it operates number of lines and hundereds kms of railways.There are also important airports in London - f.e. Heathrow or Gatwick. London is the busiest city of air transport in the world. This is caused by its position in Europe. Most intercontinental flights have at least one landing in London , because it is situated on the way between continental Europe and Northern America. Other planes can take you all around the world. So if you want to get f.e. to Cape Town in South Africa, you must firstly get to London. London is also one of the country´s most important ports. Everyday high number of ships transport goods to or from London. London´s large docks are quite important as for the city as for the country.Docks were also target of many German air- raids during WW II.
Well known are also other means of transport in London . Red double-decker buses may be the most famous buses all around the world. Also old black taxi(cabs) cars are well known. I say old , but most of them are new modern , they only look like old. Famous are also red phone boxes, policemen in black uniforms and with no weapons
The oldest part of London is called „ The City“ , also known as the „square mile“ because it has area of approximately one square mile( about 2,74 sq km) . It´s the area around St Paul´s Cathedral, with many other attractive places especially for tourists. Today „ the City of London“ means money.Here we can find number of Banks including the Bank of England , many insurance companies and offices.
Another parts of London are f.e. East End , where we can find flats of poorer people , especially of sailors and workers in docks or West End where richer and more important people live and where you can find many expensive night clubs.. Another well - known parts are f.e.
Now I´d like to mention some imporatant and interesting places and buildings in London.
St Paul´s Cathedral can be considered the heart of the City . It´s one of the largest cathedral in the world. It was built in renaissance style by Sir Christopher Wren( who might be the British most famous architect) in 17th century, after the former cathedral had burnt down during „ Great fire“ in 1666 . The Cathedral is known for its Whispering Gallery.Standing on this gallery you can clearly hear what is whispered on the opposite side of the Cathedral about 30 metres far from you. The Cathedral was badly damaged by German air-raids during WW II. , but it was repaired. Recent Prince of Wales (Prince Charles) and Lady Diana were married here. It´s interesting thet they were later divorced , altough their marriage took place on holy place - in Cathedral. And it´s known that what is joined by God a man can´t disjoin. An ordinary man may have problem with in zhe Czech Republic , but Prince Charles isn´t ordinary man , the UK isn´t Czech Republic and the Church of England isn´t our catholic church.
The Tower is another remarkable historical monument of London. It was built in the 11th century, after William´s conquest of England in 1066. It was symbol of William´s power , it served as royal residence but mainly it was a strong castle which could serve as important military point. Similar castles should be built throughout England , because William was expecting uprising against Norman rule.Later the Tower served as prison and fortress. Nowadays it´s museum , the Crown Jewels are kept here guarded by the Beefeaters in their traditional uniforms. ( One alcohol drink has similar name and it comes from London but I don´t know what it has common with these Beefeaters).
Tasso di cambio sterlina britannica (GBP) - Gran Bretagna
Near of the the Tower we can find Tower Bridge which has been built over the river Thames . It´s quite famous . I t can be surprising than it was build only in the 19 century.It can be opened in the middle and let large ships go through.
I must mention recent royal residence. It´s Buckingham palace. It´s been royal since Victoria´ reign. Worth seeing is Changing the Guard in front of the palace.Architect of this palace was inspired by house of the Duke of Buckingham , which was build here in the 18 th century.
But the most famous feature of London is Big Ben - a clock tower with well known seven - ton bell. It´s said that it´s got name after one rather fat MP called Benjamin. It has characteristic bell-ringing . Very close to BB is the Houses of Parliament which are build in gothic style , but they are quite young - there were built in 19th century.( Parliament...)
Not far from the H. of P. is situated Westminster Abbey , which was founded in the 11th century . British Kings and Queens are crowned here. Some important English writers are burried here( Chaucer, Worsworth) Piccadaly circus, Trafalgar square
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