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The UK - System of education, universities

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča sesik (30)
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 04.08.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 998 slov
Počet zobrazení: 7 014
Tlačení: 457
Uložení: 557

Education plays very important role in British society. It often determines man’s social role and standard of living. Many people receive a form of higher education. Reasons of studying are different. Someone must study because of parents, someone just wants to earn more money in future, someone longs for knowledge and someone just doesn’t want to work.

In the UK education is compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 16. Of course, education of each child is started by his parents. Bringing up only by parents can take even 5 years. But child can also attend Nursery school (It’s only about half of children), where some basic rules and skills child can learn- such as how to eat, speak, how to behave or just how to hold pen or pencil in hand,

Compulsory education can be divided into two parts: Primary school (5-11) and Secondary school (11-16). Most of students attend state schools (supported by public funds). Those are comprehensive schools, which take children of all abilities. Only small part of students attend grammar school, which take only students, who pass an examination at the age of 11. Grammar schools give more academic education. A small part of students also attends private schools- schools which receive no money from the state only from parents of students. They are  quite expensive, but they also provide schoolarship, their students often wear uniforms, they are so- called „public“ schools.

In 1988, for the first time in British history, a National Curriculum was introduced. It tells pupils which subjects they have to study, what they must learn and when they have to take asessment tests.
Between the ages 14 and 16, pupils study for their GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) exams. Pupils must take English Language, Maths, and Science for GCSE, as well as half GCSE in a foreign language and Technology. They must be also taught PE, Religious Education and Sex education.

At the age of 16, pupils can leave school. If pupils go on in their studies, they usually take A (Advanced) levels, AS (Advanced Supplementary) levels or  GNVQ (Greater National Vocational Qualifications) , or it’s possible to combine these levels.

Pupils, who take A level, study traditional subjects such as French, Physics or History. When you want to go to university it’s appropriate to take 2 or 3 A levels.

AS level is similar, but only with half of content. GNVQ are useful vocational qualifications. Pupils usually take one GNVQs in subjects such as Business or Manufactoring. This all is at the age of 18.

About one third of young people receive some form of higher education. About 15 percent of young people enter full- time courses at number of universities, polytechnics and colleges. Universities offer 3 or 4 year degree courses, colleges 2 year HND (Higher National Diplom) as well as degree courses. If you pass all your exams you are awarded a Bachelor. These students are called graduates and can study further to Degree of Master or Doctor.

There is high number of universities in the UK, and most big townshave both university and a college. But most of students choose to go to university, which is far away from their home. Student see that as start of new life- to be independent, free to develope new interests. British students don’t pay have to pay for studies, but they need some money to live away from their home while they are studying. So some students are paid by their parents, others  receive some grants or they find a part- time job or it’s possible to borrow money from the bank. In the UK we can 3 types of universities.

Oxford and Cambridge (=Oxbridge) are the oldest and most famous universities in the UK. But Oxford isn’t only town of the university, many historical events happened there. F. e. king Harold died here, Richard the Lionheart was born here, Elizabeth I. was educated in Oxford. Oxford has been cultural centre. The university in Oxford was established in 1214 when it received a charter from the Pope. Students in that time were often the cleverest sons of middle- class families, but there were no colleges, so students live in inns or they rented a house. First college was founded in the 13th century and nowadays Oxford has 45 colleges for men as well as for women. Oxford’s greatest period is second half of the 19th century in Victorian Age. Head of university is called Chancellor. In past it could take tens years to study Oxford university, the offical language used to be latin.
Cambridge is Oxford’s younger sister. But as well as Oxford it isn’t only the University, what interesting is. Cambridge is very old town, it’s situated on the river Cam. Origins of the University aren’t clear, so it’s  impossible to say with certainly, when it  was established, but the University is considered to be younger than Oxford. It’s known that in 1226 the University had a chancellor at its head. First college was founded in the middle of 13th century. Its beginings were uneasy because there was a union between town and the university, because the colleges owned large areas  of Cambridge.This problem was finally solved even by the king.

Medieval students entered Cambridge at about the age of 14 or 15. After 7 years it was possible to get title Master of Arts. Next years of studies could lead to a Doctorate. Cambridge’s greatest period is during the Elizabethan Age. Many outstanding scientefists studied Cambridge. Let’s mention at least John Milton, Charles Darwin or Isaac Newton.

Second type of British universities are so-called Redbrick Universities which were founded in the 19th century (f. e. London). Their founding is connected with expansion of industry. These school provide some technological training in industrial areas.

Last type of universities are new universities opened after 1960. Those are modern universities. Each students goes to his tutor who directs him during studies. 
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