The USA - Famous events in American history

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Autor: Dievča sesik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 04.08.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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If we want to speak about American history, I think we should start  with discovering of the continent. First it was around the year 1000 by Icelandic Vikings , but they failed to establish any permanent settlements. So next 500 years native Indians were the only inhabitants. In 1492 a navigation error lead to discivering of „ the New World“ by Christopher Columbus .His three ships sailed long time to reach last costs  of India by sailing  around the world. Instead of that , they anchored at islands  called the Bahamas nowadays.

Soon after that , many scientists and silors learned , that columbus wasn´t in Asia , but in a new continent. This continent was in the 16 th century called America after traveller and adventurer Amerigo Vespucci. „ Occupation“ of America started. There were Spaniards, especially in the middle of the continent. The first English was founded in Virginia in 1607 also Frenchmen owned their land especially in the west  of North America. In that time , native Indians were cruely  pushed to west. Many of them were killed, or they had to work for the settlers. Especially Spanish conquerors were very cruel (Cortez, Piccaso). It´s known, that they sometimes destroyed a whole tribe.

In 1620 the ship named Mayflower brought a group Of English Puritans , who had left from England. They found the colony called Plymouth. They called  themselves the Pilgrims Fathers. The first winter was very hard for them , about half of them died. in spring they planted ( with help of Indians) corn and other plants.After succesful harvest they celebrated a lot , and they called this day of celebration the Thanksgiving Day.Then thousands of people especially from Europe came to America. In the 18th century there were already 13 colonies along the Atlantic Coast , under British Rule. French territory was westerd from the English. Its west border were the Rocky Mountains, it was reaching present - day Canada in the North.

In the end of the 18th century problems between colonies and British goverment appeared. Britains was fighting against France in Europe , and needed more and more money. Due to this , taxes for the colonies were higher and higher. The colonist didn´t want to pay for any  English war , so they refused to pay. So British troops were sent to Boston. The tensian was raising.In 1773 a group of colonists threw a cargo of British tea inti waters of Boston Harbor. This event is known as the Boston Tea Party. Americans began boycotting British Trade.

In 1775 at Lexington the war broke out. The commander of the American army was G. Washington. The Continental Congress began to work . On 4th  of July , 1776  The Declaration of Independence  was approved and the USA was established. The  Ammericans were supported by Frenchmen and they defeated Englishmen. In 1783 the UK recognized the USA.

During the 19th century was the USA became very strong country. Its territory was expanded by purchases(f.e. Louisiana purchase(Alaska)) treaties of war( with Mexico).

But there were important different in some parts of the USA. Especially between the North and the South. The North was more industrial and modern , almost no slavers were working there. On the other hand the South depended on slavers, who were working on plantages. Especially cotton was planted there , and slavers were working in unhuman conditions. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected President. He was well- known as opponent of slavery. Southern states protested against his presidency. One year later the Civil War between the South and North  broke out. In 1863 Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, which granted freedom to all slaves. After the battle of Gettysburg,  where the Confederates( the South) were defeated, the Union Forces ( the North) took controls of the war , and finally in 1865 the Confederates were defeated. Soon after it , Lincoln was assassinated. The Civil war was the bloodest one in U.S. history. It took 635000 lifes.

After the Civil war the US industry grew very quickly. Major business were around cool mining, petroleum, and railways. During this period the USA became world´s  leading industrial power. The expansion of industry was connected with science. A.G. Bell invited the telephone in 1876. A transcontinental railroad was built , in beginning of the 20th century the Panama Canal was built.

In 1914 the WW I. broke out  in Europe. The USA joined in 1917. The US President Wilson helped to negotiate the peace treaty. The U.S. industry was the strongest one in the world, its factories were producting a lot , almost everybody was employed, people were happy...... Until 1929 , when the stock crash in Wall Street destroyed economics of almost all world countries. The deppresion lasted to 1933, when  F.D.Roosevelt was elected President. Since that the economic was slowly getting stronger.

In December 1941 a Japanesse attack on Hawaii( U.S. naval base) surprised the world. The USA were forced to join  WW II. First Japanese were advancing , but they were defeated in the battle of Midway in June 1942 by admiral Nimitz. Then American occupied Guadalcanal , a small island with airport( not far from Australia). Many of ground as well as naval battles took place there, and finally Japen seired its troops in March 1943. In next two years the USA conquested next important island ni the PACIFIC.Let´s mention Filipines, who the Battle of Leyte Gulf - the biggest naval battle of all time- took place on Okinawa , Guam , from where  bombing raid against Japan were organized. The  war in Pacific ended in August  1945  by dropping  of atomic bombs onto Nagasaki and Hiroshima. War in Eur......

In 1949 the Nato was establishem. The USA became its most important member , as counterbalance to the Soviet Union. The USA joined many wars in the 20 th century. For example the Korean war in 50´s , Vietnam war in 60´s and 70´s , war in Persian gulf in 1991 , or in Kosovo last year.

Some of these wars were fought  as battles of the Cold war. A never fought struggle between the U.S. and the S.U. . During this war , bouth powers paid bilions of dollars for new threating weapons. The economic of the S.U. was too weak for this and S.U. failed in 1989. During the C.war many inventions was discovered due to money for military research. In 1969 first man was walking on th Moon , thousands of submarines were built , nuclear energy began to be used as source of power.
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