Fashion – Seasons and clothes
Typ práce: Referát
Počet zobrazení: 4 026
Many people, especially women, are interested in fashion. It changes very fast, sometimes it's difficult to say what is trendy (fashionable) and what is out of fashion (unfashionable).
Function of clothes:
Protective – to protect us against cold, frost, rain, sun etc.
Decorative – to look nice, to be ready especially for formal events, ceremonies, rituals
Emotional – to express our emotions and feelings (especially through colours)
Sociable – to show which social class we belong to, to show specific social status
There are several elements which influence choosing clothes:
- age (older people wear more conservative clothes)
- religion (Islamic women wear long, dark clothes and veils to cover their whole body)
- financial situation (people buy what they can afford)
- mood (when you are happy you wear bright colours, when you are sad – dark colours)
- interests, attitudes, status in society (boss wears suit, artists - extravagant clothes, some people wear uniforms, overalls, casual clothes)
- weather, climate, occasion (where they are going)
- style - elegant, comfortable, smart, conservative, scruffy, cool, chic, trendy, old-fashioned, in,
fashionable, formal, business, casual, sporty...
- colour - red, golden, black, silver, blue, gray, white, greenish, yellow, pink, light, dark, brown, purple, bright
- material - fabric, flannel, leather, linen, silk, cotton, velvet, corduroy, denim, wool / woollen, bamboo fibers, fur, man-made fibres
- patterns - plain, spotted, striped, tartan, checked, dotted, flowered, geometric
- qualities - washable, non-iron, shrink-resistant, easy-care, flame-retardant, ready-made, second-hand
People's attitudes towards fashion:
1.) Some people don't choose their clothes according to the latest fashion, they just wear what suits them, what they can afford, clothes in which they feel comfortable. However, dresses should be clean and they should look smart.
2.) Some people only buy brand name clothes in expensive shops and follow the latest trends. They often go to fashion shows, spend a lot of money on clothes.
3.) Finally, there are those who want to be 'in' but don't buy brand clothes in expensive boutiques. They often buy imitations or cheaper clothes in markets, second hand shops or they wait for sales.
4.) On the other hand, some women want to have a unique dress for a special occasion, therefore they don't buy ready-made clothes but they go to dressmakers and have their dress made.
Seasons and clothes
In summer we prefer light and airy materials (cotton, silk), we wear short-sleeved or sleeveless shirts, T-shirts, loose blouses, summer dresses, skirts, tunics, leggings, vests, shorts, sandals, flip-flops, swimming costumes (trunks)... When it rains we wear raincoats (umbrellas), jeans, boots, waterproof jackets...
In winter we prefer warmer materials (cotton, wool, fur), fur coats, woolen jumpers, winter coats, long-sleeved T-shirts, shirts, sweaters, cardigans, polo necks (turtlenecks), anoraks, coats (overcoats), mittens, gloves, caps, scarves (sg. scarf), boots...
Accessories: hats, belts, gloves, scarf, jewellery, ring, necklace, pendant, handbag, shoulder bag, sun glasses, ear-rings, bracelet, glasses, hair ribbon, purse, wallet, laces...
Sizes of clothes: XS extra small, S small, M medium, L large, XL extra large
Clothes for different occasions
On special occasions (balls, banquets, concerts, weddings, when going to the theatres) we have to be dressed formally. Women wear long dresses (evening gowns), cocktail dresses, high-heeled shoes (pumps-lodičky), jewellery, accessories (necklace, bracelet, earrings, rings). Handbags should match their shoes and dresses. Women also wear makeup (lipstick, mascara, eyebrow pencil, eye shadow, lip gloss...) Men wear tuxedos, a suit, a white shirt with cuff links, a tie (bowtie) and dark shoes (court shoes- lakovky). Important part of our image is hair (long hair, short hair, highlighted, bleached, dyed).
On the other hand, on informal occasionswe usually wear casual clothes: jeans, baggy trousers, T-shirts, loose sweatshirts, pullovers, trainers. Sports clothes are fashionable among young people. At home we want to feel comfortable – so we prefer leisure clothes (slippers, tracksuit, jogging suit, jeans, T-shirts...).
In some jobs (doctors, nurses, policemen, soldiers, firefighters) people have to wear uniforms, white coats, costumes, aprons, overalls. In some British schools children have to wear uniforms as well.
Business dress code:
Making a great first impression is very important especially in business sphere. Either it is a new job (future employer) or a business deal (client), we need to be dressed up suitably to the situation. Your CV tells about your education, successes and skills, but the way you are dressed should express how intelligent, smart and confident you are. There are some basic rules:
- Skirts should never be higher than the top of your knee
- Your heels should never be higher than 3 inches
- Your clothes shouldn´t attract much attention (avoid bright colours, fur coats, tight tops, athletic shoes, strapless dresses, open-toe shoes, flip-flops, tight miniskirts, tight pants, light colour socks, bold patterns, tiger prints etc.)
- Your accessories and clothing should not be a distraction – you want people to listen to your ideas and thoughts (avoid loud or excessive jewellery, expensive watch, cowboy-style belt buckles etc.)
Taking care of clothes
- All clothes require special care. • We should read the washing and ironing instructions on the clothes labels very carefully. • Some clothes have to be washed only by hand. If they are washed in a washing machine on a high temperature, they can shrink or become larger. • Greasy stains can be washed with stain removers. We can use ice to remove chewing gum stuck on jeans. • If we aren't sure how to care about certain clothes, we can go to a launderette and have them washed and ironed there (also to dry cleaners) • We can't wash coloured clothes with the white ones. • We should put dresses, shirts (skirts) on hangers, other items should be nicely folded in drawers. • We shouldn't let the coloured clothes in the sunlight, because they can fade (vyblednúť).
The top of dressmaking branch is formed by fashion designers using their creativity, artistic feeling and imagination. Fashion show is an event put on by a fashion designer to show his/her upcoming collection. In a typical fashion show, models walk the catwalk dressed in the clothing created by the designer. There are several world famous fashion designers such as Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein, Karl Lagerfeld, Vivien Westwood, Kenzo, Donatella Versache, Dolce and Gabbana etc.)
Positives of fashion shows: new trends, unique, extravagant clothes...
Negatives: can´t be normally used, too expensive for a commoner, models suffer from anorexia and bulimia
Clothes in the past and now
In the past:
Differences between men´s and women´s clothing were more visible. One could easily distinguish whether a man or a woman was approaching.
- men used to wear trousers, shirts, jackets and hats, short hair
- women used to wear long skirts, long dresses with long sleeves, long hair and no part of their body could be seen
Nowadays it is only up to you what you wear. There are various styles people can choose from, or you can make your own style. Anybody can wear nearly anything. The way you are dressed depends only on social status, your own will or mood and the amount of money you want to spend.
'Clothes make a man' ('You are what you wear')
This old saying is true because clothes reveal people's origin, religion and even financial situation. They indicate their status in society. Fashion is also self-expression, especially for young people. They can show their mood, interests, attitudes, character, the music they like. The way people are dressed on different occasions also indicates their character and personality.
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