Housing, Types of houses
Typ práce: Referát
Počet zobrazení: 7 312
HOME is an emotional word which consists of location, emotional ties, housing and furniture...
A 'real home' is a place where all the family members can feel safe and happy and they help each other. It is also a place of cooking, eating, talking and arguing with our relatives.
HOUSE is a building for people to live in and often has more than one level.
People in different countries prefer to live in various types of HOUSES. In cold countries, there is often a fireplace in a smaller house, and carpets are in each room, while in southern countries people prefer cool stone floors in bigger houses.
Types of houses
A detached house - a house which is not joined to any other
A semi-detached house - a house which is joined to another house on one side
A terraced house - a house which is joined to other houses in a long row
A block of flats - a large building where all the flats share a front door
A flat - a living unit within a bigger building A bungalow - a house which has only one floor
A cottage - a small house especially in the country
Describing a place where you live
In our house/ flat we have:
a hall, (entry hall), a kitchen, a dining room, a living room, a bedroom, a guest room, a toilet, a bathroom, a pantry - komora, a basement, a cellar – pivnica, a staircase - schodisko, an attic - podkrovie, a porch – veranda, a study room, a library, a sauna, a gym, a garage, children's room...
In the hall we have: a coat hanger – vešiak na kabáty, a hall mirror - zrkadlo, front door – vchodové dvere
In the kitchen we have: a cupboard, a table, kitchen cabinets, fitted kitchen, drawers, chairs, a sink,cups, cutlery (spoons, knives, forks), frying pan, pressure cooker, cooking utensils - kuchynské potreby, dishes - riady, plates and household appliances – domáce spotrebiče: a kettle, a food processor, a fridge, a freezer, a cooker, a dishwasher, microwave oven, toaster, digestor...
In the living room we have: a sofa, a coffee table, armchairs, some furniture, a fireplace, some pictures on the walls, some plants and flowers, a carpet, a rug, curtains, roller blind, venetian blinds, paintings, chandelier, lights, spotlights, cabinets, shelves, home theatre, speakers...
In the bedroom we have: a bed, a bedside table, an alarm clock, a wardrobe, a built in wardrobe, a mirror, dressing table, a reading lamp, a chest of drawers, blankets, pillows, bedclothes, sheets...
In the bathroom we have: a bath, a shower, a washbasin, a tap – vodovodný kohútik, some towels, a bath mat, toiletries, towel rail...
cleaning, helping in the kitchen, making the bed, watering the flowers, mopping the floor, taking out the rubbish, taking care of pets, washing up, cleaning the windows, doing the shopping, sweeping the floor, dusting the furniture, polishing the furniture, ironing, washing, hanging clothes on line...
Living in a house - advantages and disadvantages
+ you have more privacy
+ you have a private yard or garden or extra space for hobbies
+ you have a safe playground for your children
+ you have more rooms in your house
+ you can have a garden - you can plant flowers, grow fruit and vegetables there
+ there is enough space among neighbours in most houses, so people can talk freely and even play musical instruments
+ you can have a garage
+ you can listen to loud music
+ you can keep bigger pets, animals - dogs, cats, horses...
- you have to take care of your house e. g. paint the walls, install or remove bathroom fittings, put up shelves
- you have to make home improvements, fix a roof or plumbing, install central heating
- you have to do everything by yourself.
- you have to mow the lawn, to undercut trees
- you have to tidy up more rooms, clean more windows
- it is more expensive, higher monthly payments
Living in a flat - advantages and disadvantages
+ it is cheaper, low cost
+ there are almost no repairs
+ it is more comfortable
+ you have less housework
- you have less privacy
- you have less space
- you don't have a garden
- if something bad happens in your flat, you can cause damage to other people
Living in the town or in the countryside
+ everything is available; there are many cultural, sport and shopping facilities (shopping centres, commercial centres, car parks, skyscrapers, libraries, factories)
+ there are educational, cultural and sport facilities
+ there is a system of public transport
+ there are health centres, job centres, banks, police stations, estate agents...
+ it is easier to find a job or change it
+ you can enjoy bars, pubs, and cafés and nightlife of the city.
- high level of criminality
- the environment is usually more polluted than in the countryside
- cities are overcrowded, there is nowhere to park in the centre
- hectic life and people moving in a rush
- they are noisy, dangerous and crowded
- there are traffic jams (especially in the rush hours), roads are full of cars and it can be stressful
- in some cities there are slums: parts of the city in a very bad condition with lots of poor people
+ there is fresh air and you get peace and quiet.
+ people live in their houses, in beautiful surroundings, peaceful atmosphere
+ there is not so much noise
+ houses have big gardens where people can spend your time with their families and friends
+ those who are interested in farming can keep animals (e. g. cows, sheep, chickens or pigs) and grow crops (e.g. wheat, oat, potatoes, vegetables and fruits)
+ it is ideal to bring up your children in the countryside in the house with a big garden
- there are not many shops, job opportunities, so people are forced to commute to the town
- elderly people are usually very curious, they love gossiping, and therefore you can miss your privacy
- some people (especially young) say that there is nothing to do, no social life, no shops...
Housing in the past and at present
People used to live in small low houses with small windows. The rooms were usually overcrowded and there was a living room and kitchen in one room. There were no carpets, no electric cooker, taps or pipes. People used to share one room, there weren´t more rooms. The house was poorly equipped, furnished in a simple way. There wasn´t a TV set, washing machine or kettle...
Housing problems in our country
- it is not easy to buy one's own flat or house - the price is extremely high.
- it is impossible especially for young families to buy a flat without the help of their parents or a mortgage (hypotéka) - there are many banks from which it is possible to borrow some money. They have to pay off the mortgage for many years after moving into the house.
- some people also take a loan (pôžička) for the reconstruction of their flats or houses.
- also renting the houses or flats is common, mainly young families which cannot afford to buy a flat, live in rented accommodation.
- the government supports especially young people, who want to build their own houses, with some housing benefits. – another housing problem is homelessness - many homeless people are alcoholics, mentally ill or just unemployed people without any money. More and more asylum houses are built for them.
My dream house
I would like to have a house in a hot country near the sea or ocean – for example in Florida or Jamaica or at least in France or Italy because I love hot weather and summer sports so I could go swimming and I could sunbathe on the beach. I would like to have a big house with a garage which would be comfortable. I would also have a big garden with a playground or a tennis court. I would also like to have a swimming pool. There would be a modern kitchen and a bathroom with a shower and Jacuzzi. The house would be painted in bright colours – green, yellow, orange. I would like to have a cleaner, because I don’t like cleaning, and also a gardener who would look after the garden. The house would have a large living room where we would watch television, play games, listen to music…. I would paint it orange because I like that colour and I would have a big TV on the wall. I would buy modern furniture and a comfortable sofa and many plants. I would also build a fireplace. We would sit by the fireplace and relax there if the weather became colder.
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