American System of Education

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: janka
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 17.09.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 560 slov
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School attendance in the USA is compulsory from the age from 6 to16. Most children attend public schools, but there are also private and church schools. Education at public schools is free of charge, private schools charge schools fees. Children in this school system wear uniforms only at private schools. Private and church schools still remain single‑sex. The school year starts from mid-August or mid-September and usually ends in May or June of the following year. The school year is divided into three terms (fall, winter, spring). A school day is different at different types of schools. Classes begin between 8 and 9 o’clock and there are from 4 to 6 lessons in a row, followed by a lunch break and then afternoon classes. The school years are called grades.

Pupils and students are evaluated by marks from A to F, A is the best, F is the worst. Each term students get their schools report with marks from both compulsory and elective subjects. Education in this country includes these stages: pre-school, elementary, secondary and higher. Pre-school education is provided by nursery school and kindergarten for children up to 6 years of age. At 6 children start to go to elementary schools and they stay there untill 11. At 11 the pupils transfer from elementary to secondary school.

Secondary education is provided by Middle Schools (from 11 to 14 years of age) or by High Schools which are often divided into Junior High (from 12 to 15) and High School (from 15 to 18 years of age). Some schools may also offer different programs of study, so the students can choose from a variety of specialized schools. The basic school leaving qualification is usually the High School Diploma, normally awarded by the individual school. After passing an examination the student is awarded by the General Education Diploma. In the USA doesn’t exist the School–Leaving Examination. The national examination which is used to help select students for college or university entrabce is the Scholastic Aptitude Test (it’s taken in mathematics and English).

About one third of the high-school graduates continue on higher education. Institutions of higher education are divided into:
· Community Colleges – provide continuing general, vocational and semi-professional education for people with a High School Diploma.
· Vo-techs – are vocational – technical schools which offer vocational and technical education in the courses from 6 months to 2 years.
· Universities and Colleges.

Universities and colleges provide higher education which usually lasts 4 years. Each secondary school graduate can apply for as many universities and colleges as he likes but before he is accepted he has to pass an entrance examination in subjects in which the university specialized. The exam consists of an essay, test result and an interwiev. Undergraduates can study a variety of subjects for example: economic, history, journalist, english, architecture etc. The university students can enroll at four-year courses for a Bachelor’s Degree or post-graduate courses for a Master’s Degree which last 3 years or at courses for Doctoral’s Degree which last from two to five years. The oldest and most respected universities in the USA originated from colleges and they usually are all private. For example Harvard, College of William and Mary, Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University or College of Columbia, Massachussetts Institute of Technology.
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Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

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