Crime and punishment

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: apfel
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 31.10.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 688 slov
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Crime has been a growing problem all over the world in last 30 years. Most crime is against property, not people. And most is not carried out by professionals and carefully planned. Property crimes thrive on the easy opportunity and are often commited by young people. There are many different types of crimes, I think four main:

Minor offences:  drivers offences – illegal parking, speeding, driving against the red
shoplifting – stealing things from opened shops
tiny thefts from pockets - purses, mobil phones, keys, papers

Crime against property: arson - someone intentionall light a fire on somebody´s car, house, office
burglary – someone break into flat, office or closed shop and steal st.
hooliganism - fans, drunkards or demonstrationists pass a street, wreck cars, break windows, light a fire, make noise, demolish communal property
robbery – stealing money from shops, banks, post offices, petrol stations

Crime against people:  assault – attacking someone and hurt him
rape – special type of assault - violent sex
blackmail – call for money somebody for example because of secret
informations about him, which he doesn´t want to make public
kidnapping – taking someone prisoners and demand money for his release
mugging – attcking someone and stealing from him car in the street
menslaughter – killing someone unintentionally
murder – intentional kill, often planned

Economical crimes:  imposture –borrow money from someone and not to return it, sale false things
smuggling – importing or exporting things secretly – goods, subject to duty
forgery – making false documents, money, signature, stamps
There are also another, I think more dangerous crimes: hijacking, terrorism or dealing drugs.

Crime prevention: We can make life more difficult for thieves for example by carrying our wallet in an inside pocket and not let handbag out of our sight, by locking doors and windows in cars or houses and switch on alarm too.

Punishment: When someone breaks the law or commit a crime, is caught by police and arrested, he always calls for a barrister. Police look for evidence, investigate accused and witnesses. When police have good evidence, criminal is prosecuted and come into court. If he´s guilty, than in case of minor offences he can get away with probation, fine or community service. But in case of serious crimes someone can be sentenced to jail or life inprisonment. Convict can of course make an appeal.

Death penalty: Capital punishment has been used throughout history, although its methods and the crimes for which it is used have changed over the centuries. Now death penalty is used only in the USA, China, Arabian countries and south-east Asia.

People are divided into two groups – one is for death penalty, second against it. Pro-hanging lobby uses fou main arguments for the reintroduction of capital punishment. First is the deterrence theory, which argues that potential murderers would think twice before commiting the act if they were caught. The next argument is public security. If the death penalty were reinstaled, it would mean that a convicted murderer could not be set free after serving 20 years or less of a life sentence and ve able to go on to murder again. The other two arguments are more suspect. The idea of retribution demands that criminals should get what they deserve: if a murderer intentionally sets out to commit a crime, he should accept the consequences. Retribution is supported by the regilious doctrine of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. The fourth main pro-hanging argument is the most cold-blooded. It is that it makes economical sense to hang convicted murderers rather than keep them in prison wasting taxpayers´ money.

The arguments against capital punishment are largely humanitarian. The main argument is that innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted, and while people can be released from prison, they cannot be brought back from the dead if they have been hanged. The other reasons to oppose the death penalty are largely a matter of undividual conscience and belief. One is that murder is murder and that the state has no more right to take a life that the individual. The other is that Christianity reaches forgiveness, not revenge.
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