School and education

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: apfel
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 05.11.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 941 slov
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School system in Czech Republic
The school year begins on September 1st and finishes on June 30th. After enrolment in the nine-year elementary school, six-year-olds begin their compulsory school attendance. Children gradually learn to read, write and count; later they get acquainted with the fundamentals of history, geography, the natural sciences and the fine arts. At the end of each school year, pupils get reports about their academic record in different subjects. This is followed by long-awaited two months of holidays, which they look forward to very much. But they have also other holiday - Christmas, Easter and spring holidays.

In the final year of the elementary school many people face a problem. During this time everybody needs to choose his future occupation. The choice depends not only on his interests but also on his performance and success at school. Everyone can choose from various options: to study at some secondary school (industrial, medical, economic), an apprentice centre or some art school. One of the alternative secondary school is a high school, which is designed to prepare students for university studies. At present time there are also private and religious schools. In contrast with the past, more emphasis is placed on foreign language studies as well as computers and economics. Secondary school studies last for four years. At the end of the fourth year students must pass a graduation exam. Knowledge of four subjects is verified there.

If somebody wants to study at college or university, he musts successfully pass the entrance examination and interview. The choices are really quite wide-ranging. He can decide whether he will study at a school with a technical, humanistic or economic orientation, one of the medical faculties or at a conservatory. Universities have several levels. The lowest, usually lasting three years, is the bachelor’s degree. Upon successfully completing this course of study, someone achieve the title of bachelor. After completing studies at an economics or technical college we obtain the title of engineer. The complementation of studies is marked by a ceremony called graduation, where students get a diploma certifying the successful complementation of studies.

There are also specialized schools for learning how to drive any kind of vehicle. These schools are known as driving schools. The final exam consists of theoretical knowledge of traffic regulations but also of actual driving skills. Then we get our long-awaited driving license and we can set out into the streets.

School system in Great Britain
Every child in Britain has to go to school from the age of five to sixteen. The great majority of parents send their children to state schools, where education and equipment, including textbooks and stationery is entirely free. Before the age of five, some children go to kindergartens or nursery schools. All start at five in the infant department of a primary school. These schools are usually for boys and girls together, the teachers are generally women. After two years preparing children move into the junior department. Here the work is of course more advanced than in the infant classes. There is less free activity in the classroom, less art and handicrafts, the children begin to use a pen instead of a pencil. The school day lasts from 9 AM until 3 PM, but the younger children do not stay for the whole day. Saturdays and Sundays are free. The school year begins in September, and is divided into three terms, with holidays at Christmas, at Easter, and in the summer. Most of primary schools practices “streaming”. Quite early, if a school is big enough, children are placed in „streams“, in parallel classes learning at different speeds. „A“ stream for children who learn the quickest, „B“ stream for average pupils and „C“ stream for slower children. Nowadays the vast majority of secondary school pupils attend comprehensive schools, in which pupils of all abilities and from all social classes are taught from the age of eleven. Often they have the chance to study there, besides the usual subjects (physics, chemistry, biology, French, etc.), such subjects as economics, shorthand, typing, and drama.

At the age of 16 about two thirds of these pupils take the Certificate of Secondary Education (C.S.E.), leave school and get jobs or apprenticeships. This system of education is free of charge. Pupils, who want to continue with study, pass the examination G.C.E. (called „O“- level) to continue study. When they pass this „O“(ordinary) level, they can enter the sixth form and study only those three or four subjects they like best.

At 18 they pass the G. C. E. („A“- level). The „O“ and „A“ level examinations are set and marked by various examining boards appointed by universities. With good „O“- level results boys and girls can get good office jobs or can enter courses for certain jobs requiring specialist training. „A“(advanced) level passes are essential for entrance to a university. Only Oxford and Cambridge Universities require applicants to take an entrance examination as well.
Besides state school there are independent schools for the children of all ages, which are financed by fees and private money. The best known of these are the boarding schools where boys aged 13 – 17 or 18 live as well as study. Several public schools are hundreds of years old (e. g. Eton, Rugby, Harrow, Winchester) the famous all over the world. Parents who wish to send their sons to a public school send them first, at the age of seven, to a small private primary school (usually a boarding school) called a preparatory school, because it prepares boys for the public school examination.
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Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

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