Great Britain – maturitná otázka

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Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 27.01.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
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GREAT BRITAIN

It is situated to the west of Europe. It borders with the Atlantic ocean in the west and

with the North Sea in the North – east.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland covers an area of about 244 000 square km. It consists of two large islands (Great Britain – divided into England, Scotland

and Wales and Ireland) and many smaller ones (e.g. the Isle of Wight, the Isle of Scilly, Anglesey, The Hebrides, the Shetlands, the Channel Islands…)

The main mountain regions are the Cambrians (Wales), the Pennines (the Backbone of England), the Cheviot Hills (on the border between England and Scotland), the Highlands of Scotland with the highest mountain Ben Nevis (1 342 m). Coast is heavily indented, especially on west. The longest rivers are the Severn and the Thames. The Isles have moderate climate. It is rainy and windy very often.

Its population is about 57,000,000 people.

Different names: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or Great Britain or just Britain.

Great Britain consists of Wales, Scotland, England and Northern Ireland (Ulster).

The Commonwealth is the descendant of the British Empire, a worldwide system of colonies; most of them are independent now. Colonies were source of raw materials and cheap labour and they served as markets for manufactured goods. The first country to attain self-government was Canada. In 1867. Later on also Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, Ireland and the Union of South Africa became independent. These were called as old Commonwealth countries. New commonwealth members are India, Pakistan and The Isle of Fiji. The Queen is still the head of each state.

Flag: 3 crosses (England, Scotland, and N. Ireland), Wales- its own flag.

Language: English, Welsh (parts of Wales), Scottish and Ireland Gaelic (they aren’t official).

Political system: Constitution monarchy, head of the state is British Queen, but she has very little power. Parliament: 2 chambers: House of Lords and House of Commons- bigger power.

Very important is prime minister- now Tony Blaire. There are two main parties (liberal and conservative) in Britain.

Religion: Anglican or Protestant.

Scotland

The capital is Edinburg; the biggest city is Glasgow.

The Loch Ness- the monster is the biggest attraction.

The highest mountain is Ben Nevis.

Gretna Green

It used to be a part of Scotland. It is a small village; young people can get married at 16 without parents’ agreement.

Hadrian Wall

Picts- brave people, they attacked Romans, they protected Scotland.

England

Southwest

Plymouth

Home to many England’s seafarers including Sir Francis Drake, the first Englishman that sail around the world. He set out to attack the Spanish armada from here. The Pilgrim Fathers sailed from here to America.

Barnstable

Is one of the oldest towns in Devon. It was established as Saxon Burg in 10th century. It is an important trading centre.

Bath

Is the most famous spa in England. Natural springs are nearly 50 degrees hot. Romans built it.

Bath. There are the remains of the Roman bath built 2000 years ago. The springs have curative purposes (léčebné účinky). He excavations started when the gilded head of goddess Minerva was dug up. The city is also a cultural centre with theatre productions and festivals.

Cornwall

The south-west country of England, is known for its beautiful landscape.

Devon

Is the region of wild moors. The area became famous through Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles”.

Stonehenge

It is situated on Salisbury Plain. The purpose of this construction is unknown – probably religious and astronomical reasons. Europe’s most famous prehistoric monument, it was in use about 3500 years ago. The ruins stand in the centre of huge circle (98 meters in diameter). The circle is formed by a bank and a ditch. The ruins consist of two stone circles and two horseshoes. In the centre there is an Altar Stone.

Clovelly

A little village with long steep cobbled street. The old stone houses and very popular donkeys make it a great attraction.

Southeast

Dover

When you approach Britain by sea, the first sights to see are the White Cliffs of Dover and Dover Castle. Dover Castle, which is one of the country’s largest castles stands on top of the cliffs. There is situated e.g. the Roman Lighthouse which is still in use, Medieval Tunnels and Admiralty Look out which gives a magnificent view of the harbour and the White Cliffs coastline.

Hastings

Hastings is a seaside resort on the east-coast. It was the Normans who made the biggest impact on Hastings - and much of what they built can still be seen today. The ruinsof one

of William the Conqeror’s first English castles dominates Hastings. Inside, you can see a film about the battle of Hastings.

There are St Clement’s Caves where is a very popular tourist attraction, which is called Smuggler’s Adventure. You can see there how smugglers lived. (There are figures of smugglers and you can press buttons to get information about their lives, work and so on.). It is built because there were about 70 000 smugglers in Hastings in the 17th (18th) century.

The houses and pubs in the Old Town concealed secret passages where the smugglers hid from the law.

There is Sea life Centre in Hastings as well where you can see e.g. sharks, fish, seahorses, octopuses, conger eels, rays, crabs, starfish and so on.

But no visit to Hastings would be complete without a walk down the 122 years old pier, with its amusements and bars.

Battle

As you know William the Conqeror defeated the Saxon King Harold in the battle of Hastings in 1066. But it was not exactly in Hastings, it was in a small town which is situated near H. That town is called Battle and after defeating Harold, W. the Conqeror had an abbey built there to Harold’s memory. (There is something like Harold’s grave in that area.)

There is an attraction called Yesterday’s World in Battle.

It is a museum of shops dated to Victorian time (the 19th century). You can see there e.g. the old jewellers, chocolate and tobacco shop, the Victorian chemist shop as well as the late Victorian kitchen and maid’s room.

Brighton

Not far along the coast lies Brighton a fashionable seaside resort and a spa. Its prosperity began with the building of the Royal Pavilion by King George IV. in the 19th century.

He had it built in oriental style as his summer residence. The interiors are decorated in the Chinese taste, the exterior is inspired by Indian architecture.

There is the Palace Pier in Brighton, which is similar to Hastings, Pier.

Canterbury

Canterbury is the seat of the Archbishop. There is a cathedral built by people of faith. Thomas Becket was murdered there in 12th century and he is also buried there.

Canterbury Tales based on Geoffrey Chaucer’s classic are big attraction. You can join pilgrims on their way from London to Canterbury and listen to their stories, which are spoken by famous speakers. You listen to strange sounds and smell different smells.

Windsor

Home of kings and queens of Britain for over 900 years. There are unique treasures. It has been heavily damaged in 1992.

Great Park- it used to be hunting forest, now it is famous for playing of polo.

Portsmouth

Traditional home of the Royal Navy. It has been an important port. There are historic ships, castles, forts, and museums. You can walk where Captain Cook or Nelson once walked.

The Midlands

Liverpool

Second largest port in GB. The dock (Albert docks) has been transformed into International Garden Festival.

It is famous for Industry, football horses and Beatles. Liver was a magic bird and it is a symbol of Liverpool.

It is called the city of the Beatles. There is the Beatles museum and the Beatles club.

(Everything is made for tourists.) Beatles Story- you can go through whole history of Beatles, you listen to their songs and learn about their lives.

There is very old Liverpool Cathedral. Liverpool Cathedral is the largest cathedral in Britain and the 5th largest in the world. (It is a protestant cathedral, it was completed by Queen Elizabeth II.)

Coventry

Home of Britain’s car industry, there is a famous cathedral which was once destroyed and then rebuilt. It was bombed in the WW II. In the centre of the city there stands a statue of Lady Godiva who lived in 11th century.

Manchester

Is a large industrial, commercial and financial centre of the UK. Manchester ship canal is 36 meters long, Large production of cotton, clothes, machinery chemicals and plastic.

Oxford

There is the oldest university in England. Sir Christopher Wren or John Locke studied there. Oxford University consists of 38 independent colleges. The largest is called Christ Church. The city is situated at the meeting of two rivers- The Thames and The Cherwell. The Oxford’s beer is still produced in last remaining brewery. There are many museums, libraries, galleries (The museum of modern art, The museum of Oxford, The university museum…).

There is also a castle there.

Stratford

It is a small town with only 17 thousand inhabitants but over 250 thousand people visited Statford every year. In Holy Trinity Church you can see the grave of Shakespeare, his wife and other members of his family. Not far there is the Royal Shakespeare Theatre where

the Shakepeare’s plays have been played.

Shakespeare’s birthplace is the house where Shakespeare was born in 1564. It has been a place of pilgrimage for over 250 years

New place (Nash’s House)- Shakespeare’s family home from 1597 until his dead in 1616. It was pulled down in the 18th century because the owner didn’t like the visitors. But the ruins can be still seen today.

Hall’s Croft – is a house where Shakespeare is buried. It is named after Dr. John Hall, Shakespeare’s son in law. He married Susanna Shakespeare in 1607 and they lived here until moving to New Place after Shakespeare’s death.

Anne Hathaway’s Cottage is the thatched farmhouse. It is home of Anne before her marriage to Shakespeare. It has got picturesque cottage garden.

Mary Arden’s House is a timbered Tudor Farmhouse where Shakespeare’s mother grew up.

There are 1600 hotel rooms in Stratford. There is one hotel whose rooms haven’t numbers but names of Shakespeare’s plays. So you can sleep in Hamlet’s room or in Romeo and Juliet’s room.

East englie

Cambridge

A university town situated on the river Cam. University: 30 colleges, firstly only for men, since 1871 for women too. There is very famous bridge over the river called Bridge of Sighs. It is wooden. There are no screws or nails. There are wooden Mathematical Bridge and the Bridge of Sighs over the river.

The historical city is more beautiful than Oxford. Microsoft are building their 1st European research centre there.

Wales

Wales is to the west of England. The Welsh are very proud of their language and culture.

Welsh is one of the oldest living languages in Europe. (It is the Celtic language like Scottish and Irish Gaelic.) It is spoken by 20 per cent of the population.

King Edward I. started the tradition that the oldest son of the English King has the title

“Prince of Wales”. (The oldest son is crowned in Caernarfon which is the ancient capital of Wales.)(Charles – 1969)

The first Welsh Prime Minister of Great Britain was David Lloyd George.

Cardiff, Newport and Swansea are the biggest industrial cities. The main industries in Cardiff are coal and steel industries. Mining has been one of the most important industries for many years. One of the biggest power-stations in the world is being built in the heart of Welsh mountain. (It uses the water of a large mountain lake to produce electricity.)

Cardiff has been the official capital of Wales since 1955. It was an important industrial city and a port, nowadays it is a commercial and administrative centre. You should visit the Castle, the Cathedral or the National Museum of Wales there.

There is the village with the longest name in the world, in Wales. 

(Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch)

There are 3 National Parks in Wales. The most famous is Snowdonia, which covers about 2 sq km. The highest mountain Snowdon is 1085 m. You can reach the summit on foot or by the Snowdon Mountain railway. In the Snowdonia Museum you are taken on a fascinating journey through time to reveal the power of Wales.

The Welsh Slate Museum shows us the life of people who worked in this industry.

Wales is sometimes called the land of castles, because North Wales has several impressive castles. (Caernarfon, Flint castle, Harlech Castle, …)

City of Bangor is a coastal city with unique character and landscape – it has its own mountain. There is the Bible Garden with a unique collection of some plants named in the Bible. There is the Victorian Pier (over the Menai Strait) which was built in 1896 in this city.

Bangor Cathedral is one of the oldest, its restoration has been continuing.

There is an annual competition in Wales, called eisteddfod. People recite poetry, sing and dance.

St. David is the patron saint of Wales. The symbols are a leek and a daffodil.

History

Britain draws its name from one of the Celtic tribes- Brythons, who brought iron to England.

England was added to the Roman Empire in 43 AD.

Christianity was brought to England in 4th century

In 4th century waves of Jutes, Angles and Saxons arrived from Germanic lands.

In the 11th century Danish king Canute made Britain part of his Scandinavian Empire.

In 1066 William the Conqueror defeated Saxon King Harold in a battle of Hastings.

1338-1453 Hundred Year’s War against France took place.

A long civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York lasted 1455-1485.

King Henry VIII separated the Church of England from the authority of the Pope in 1543.

A struggle between the Parliament and Stuart kings led to a bloody civil war (1642-1649). Finally Oliver Cromwell established a republic and king Charles was beheaded. (The monarchy was restored in 1660, but the parliament stayed);

Technological innovations led to the Industrial Revolution (1760-1850). Britain became the world leader of power after defeating Napoleon in1850.

During WWI and II Britain suffered big economic losses and the USA became the world’s leading power.

Ireland became independent in 1921.

Economics

GB has very rich coal deposits. Hence is saying: “It’s like carrying coal to Newcastle.” GB has big deposits of oil and gas in North Sea. As to steel GB is the 5th largest producer in the world. In aircraft industry GB takes up 2nd position. During WW II Spitfire, Hurricane and bomber Halifax were world-famous. Textile production is traditional.

Great Britain is a highly developed country. The main industries are electrical, oil and aircraft industries and textile production. It is very rich in natural resources as well, e.g. coal, earth gas, lead, limestone, kaolin, chalk and so on. It is one of the biggest shipbuilders (Newcastle). Important agricultural items are cattle, sheep, vegetables, fruit, potatoes and so on. 30 per cent of the population work in manufacturing and engineering and nearly 60 per cent work in services.aroldHa

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