London – maturitná otázka

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Autor: babuska (24)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 29.01.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Praktické!

London

  • 1 600 sq km, 12 000 000 inhahitants (with suburbs)
  • capital of the United Kingdom
  • lies on the river Thames
  • it includes the city of London and 32 boroughs
  • seat of Monarchy, the Parliament, the Goverment and the Supreme Court
  • Central London = The City of London - the oldest part of London, now the financial centrum
  • The East End - many new imigrant groups live and many working people
  • The West End – there are chic ships, theatres, beautiful residential areas, great parks, …

History

  • 800 B. C. there was a Celtic settlement
  • the place had been occupied by Romans about 55 B. C.
  • about 43 A. D. Romans estabilished city Londonium
  • in fifth century Romans left the island, but the city remained
  • during the 12th century reing of Norman kings (William the Conqueror was the first to come in 1066) the royal court moved from Winchester, the former capital, to London for ever
  • city continued to grow and soon absorb the originally separate Westminister
  • in 1665 more than 75 000 people died from a plague epidemic
  • in 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed four fifths of the city
  • in the latter half of the 17th century Sir Christopher Wren designed and constructed about 50 churches and some other public buildings
  • German bombarding during World War II caused serious damage
  • since 1982 the most risky and criticized project in recent times has been the rescue and new development of the Docklands east of the City

Places of Interest

  • The Houses of Parliament - the original Palace of Wesminister was a home for the royal family until the 16th

century, but there was a terrible fire in 1834 and most of the original palace was burnt

- it was rebuilt between 1840 and 1860 in Gothic style

- became the seat of Parliament in 1547

- The House of Lords and The House of Commons

- Big Ben - clock tower; it isn‘t really the name of clock, but the name of the bell

- the strikes of Big Ben is known world-wide because it is used by the BBC as a time signal

  • Westminster Abbey - was a Norman church of the Benedictine monks in Westminster

- the present building in the Gothic style was started in 1245 by King Henry III

- nearly all the Englis kings and queens since William I (1027 – 1087) were crowned in

Westminster Abbey. In 1953, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned there.

  • Buckingham Palace - was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham

- King George III bough the palace in 1761

- it is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth II and the British Royal Family

- there are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace

  • Tower of London - William the Conqueror began to build the massive fortress – the White Tower

- the inner wall, with its thirteen towers, was built in 13th century

- outer walls was added by Edward I

- the Tower served till the 16th century as a royal home, a prison, an execution site, a royal mint

and an observatory

- now there is a museum of armour and weapons and instruments of torture and execution

- you can see the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House

- the Tower is guarded by the Yeomen Warders (incorrectly called Beefeaters) who still wear the

uniform of the Tuodor times

- six ravens are kept in the Tower to protect the whole Kingdom. The legend says that the

Kingdom will die when the ravens leave the Tower

  • Tower Bridge - most famous bridge in London which is raised in the middle to allow ships to pass up the river
  • St. Paul‘s Cathedral - was built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1711 in Baroque style

- it stands on the site of the previous cathedral which was damaged by the Great Fire in 1666

- it is the second largest church in the world after St. Peter‘s in Rome

  • Trafalgar Square - largest square in London

- its name commemorate the naval victory of Admiral Lord Nelson over the French and

Spanish fleet at Spanish Cape Trafalgar in 1805

- in the middle of the square is Nelson‘s Column (about 50 m high) with statue of Horatio

Nelson at the top 

  • Piccadily Circus - the centre of the city‘s nightlife

- in the centre of the Circus at the top of the Fountain stands Eros, the Greek God of love

  • The Nacional Theatre - the compex consists of three theatres, completed in 1976
  • National Gallery - it houses one of the greatest collections of paintings from the 13th to the 20th centuries

(Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt, Manet, Monet, El Greco, …)

  • British Museum - antiquities from Egypt, South and South-East Asia, China, Greece, Rome and the East

- notable exhibits include the Magna Charta which limited the king;s powers in 1215, William

Shakespeare‘s folio published in 1623, the Partenon sculptures, Egyptian mummies, a Gutenberg

Bible, Anglo-Saxon treasure, authhors‘ original manuscripts (Charles Dickens, John Lennon, …)

  • London Dungeon – it is the world‘s first medieval horror museum
  • Sherlock Holmes Museum – at 221b, Baker Street where Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Waston resided
  • Madame Tussaud‘s - exhibition cotains wax life-size models of famous people from history and today
  • Hyde Park - the largest park in London

- in the centre is a lake called The Serpentine

- it has also an area called Speakers Corner – here anyone can stand on a box and speak about

anything they want, including politics and religion

  • Regent‘s Park - London‘s most elegant park with gardens, lakes and a zoo
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