Science and Technology – maturitná téma

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 19.03.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 802 slov
Počet zobrazení: 246
Tlačení: 9
Uložení: 11
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Science and Technology

Inventions of the past

In the pre-historic times, people’s lives were very simple – people hunted for food and made primitive tools from stones and simple clothes to protect them from the cold. The only tool which they had was the human hand. People wanted to make their lives easier and more comfortable and so they invented the wheel. They also built windmills to use the wind energy. Important discoveries and inventions came in 15th and 16th centuries – new continents /America, Asia, Africa/ were discovered and sciences such as astronomy, philosophy, medicine and biology were developed. At that time also the printing press was invented in Germany by a man called Gutenberg.

Many important inventions came in the18th and 19th century– it was the time of the Industrial Revolution:

the steam engine => James Watt
the electric light bulb => T. A. Edison
the electric motor => Michael Faraday 
the 1st petrol driven car => G. Daimler, K. Benz
the electricity

2. Modern life

Thanks to these inventions, large factories were built and everything started to be produced by machines => the mass production started and many goods became cheaper and more people could buy them. The technologies also improved and new and cheaper materials were used:

- rubber, glass, leather, paper, plastics, synthetic materials

Later, in the 20th century, these inventions came to existence:
the airplane
the computer
the mobile phone
the Internet, the TV
the videophone

the credit cards
the phone cards
pesticides– postreky proti hmyzu
fertilizers– hnojivá
genetically modified food– geneticky modifikované potraviny

In the 20th century, scientists made a lot of medical research that helps the doctors to save human lives and to cure many illnesses – for example:
the laser, new drugs and vaccines– penicillin, vitamin C, X-ray, test-tube babies

3. Inventions and technology that we use every day 

Today we cannot imagine our lives without technology. We use it every day at home, at work, at school and in many other parts of our lives. They are very important to us. There are many inventions that we use every day. 
For example at home we use these inventions:
electric appliances, a fridge, a washing machine ,a computer /PC/, a TV, an electric kettle, a telephone, a mobile phone, an answering machine, a dishwasher , a plug, a socket, a microwave oven, a vacuum cleaner /a hover/

At work we can use:
a telephone, a fax machine, a computer, a laptop /a notebook/, a car...

4. The advantages and disadvantages that the science and technology brought to mankind

The development of science and technology brought to people many advantages but also many disadvantages.

Advantages:
- it made our lives easier and more comfortable
- sometimes science can help to make a human life longer – for example new medicine /penicillin/ and medical technology was developed /X-ray/ => many people can be cured 
- science and technology help us to learn new information about our life, the life of animals, our world and the space – people can travel to space, search the oceans and the jungle because we have the technology for it – we can measure, weigh very precisely
- science and technology helps us to overcome the distance - for example the telephone – we can talk to and see people who are far away from us, even on the other side of the world
- it helps us to make transactions easier – we use credit cards, phone cards…
- it can help us to protect our environment – to find some alternative sources of energy – for example the wind power, the solar power…

Disadvantages:
- the science has brought some ethical problems – for example the cloning of animals and people – some people think that it is right, some people think it is wrong
- science and technology can endanger people – we can be destroyed by the new inventions – ballistic missiles, laser and nuclear weapons, H-bomb 
- pollution of the environment – on the one hand the science can help us to protect it, on the other hand, we can destroy it by fertilizers, pesticides…
- we spend less time talking to our family and friends – we prefer sending messages, using mobiles and we communicate with computer, not with real people.

- we should use the technology wisely so that we can improve our lives and don’t destroy it.

5. Famous inventors and scientists:

- Isaac Newton– English mathematician, physicist, astronomer – he invented the law of gravitation 
- James Watt– he was a Scottish engineer – he invented the steam engine
- Charles Darwin– an English scientist – he developed the modern theory of evolution
- Thomas Alva Edison– an American inventor – he invented the electric bulb, the telephone transmitter
- Alexander Graham Bell– Scottish inventor – he invented the telephone
- Albert Einstein– he developed the theory of relativity
- Sir Alexander Fleming– Scottish bacteriologist – he discovered the first antibiotic drug – penicillin
- James Dewey Watson– American biologist – discovery of a structure for DNA
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