English speaking countries – maturitná téma
Typ práce: Referát
Počet zobrazení: 366
English speaking countries
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
- General information
The UK is a country, which is situated on two mainislands:
- Great Britain
Great Britain consists of these countries:
- England– the capital city = London
- Scotland–the capital city = Edinburgh
- Wales–the capital city = Cardiff
- Northern Ireland– the capital city = Belfast
Its area is 244 872 km2 /square kilometers/ and the population is about 59 mil. inhabitants (obyvatelia). The capital city is London and the currency (pen. mena) is 1 GBP /1 British pound/. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy (ústavná) and the head of the state is the Queen Elizabeth II.The head of the government (vlada) is the Prime minister – it is David Cameron now.
The country has a mild (jemnu) and rainy climate. The most important river is the Thames and the longest river is the Severn.
INDUSTRY & AGRICULTURE (priemysel a poľnohospodarstvo)
The UK is a very industrialized country. Services - for example finance, banking, computing, advertising and so on, are now a very important part of the British industry. Other important industries are also iron and steel (oceľ) industry, textile, plastics and food industry.
The main agricultural products are potatoes, sugar beet, milk, meat, wheat and so on.
2. Interesting places in Britain
- Stonehenge– it is a historical place made of big stones in the south of England. Scientists are still trying to discover, why it was built. Some of them think that it was a religious (náboženské) place for burials; others think that it was used as a calendar. Scientists still don’t know how it was built.
- Liverpool– is the home of the famous band called the Beatles.
- Oxford, Cambridge – these are the famous university towns
- Stratfordupon Avon– it is the birthplace of William Shakespeare –he was a famous English writer and dramatist – he wrote Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet and so on.
- London–the capital city of England
- LakeLochNess– lakes are in Scotland called “Loch” – one of the biggest lakes is the lake Loch Ness. People believe that a monster called Nessie lives in this lake. Many people say they have seen this monster – scientists are trying to find out if it really exists. They think it could be an animal that lived in pre-historic times and it survived in the lake because it had good conditions for life there.
- Glasgow–it is the biggest city in Scotland – it is an important economic and tourist centre of Scotland
London is the capital city of England and one of the world’s largest cities /it covers the area of 1579 km2/. It is situated in the south of England and it has the population of about 7, 5 million people. London is a very multicultural city – people of different origins (pôvod), races (rasa) and religions live there. London is crossed by the river Thames. London is today one of the world's leading business, financial and cultural centers. There are 5 airports and a large port (prístav) in London – the most important airport is called Heathrow.
London was first settled in about 43 AD by the Romans => this settlement was called Londinium – today’s name “London” comes from this old name. In the past many different nations tried to conquer London – it was attacked by Celts, Anglo-Saxons, and the Spanish and so on. In the 17th century there was a large fire /known as “The Great Fire of London”/, which destroyed many parts of London. In the 19th century it became the largest city and the first railways were built.
These are the London’s most important sightseeing (prehliadka) places:
1. The Houses of Parliament /also called The Westminster Palace – they stand on the bank of the river Thames. They are buildings in Gothic style=> the Houses of parliament consist of 2 houses:
- The House of Lords
- The House of Commons
- Big Ben– it is the clock tower which belongs to the Houses of Parliament => the clock has the name of Sir Benjamin Hall – he was very tall and so his friends called him Big Ben. The clock has 7 meters in diameter and it weighs 13 tons. It is the biggest bell in England.
- The London Eye - the world’s largest observation wheel (koleso) and the London’s most popular tourist attraction
- The Tower Bridge– a bridge which is near the Tower of London. It is low over the river and it must be opened for the big ships => signals for ships and cars are sent by traffic lights.
- The Tower of London– it is near the Tower Bridge. It was a prison, a fortress, a palace in the past => visitors can see the crown jewels there.
- BuckinghamPalace – it is the residence of the Queen. She lives here with her family. The first queen who lived in Buckingham Palace was the Queen Victoria. In summer tourists can visit the Buckingham Palace because it is opened to public and they can also see the changing of the guard.
- St. Paul’s Cathedral
- Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum– there are figurines of famous people made of wax.
STREETS AND SQUARES:
- Trafalgar Square-it is famous for its pigeons. Every year, people from London celebrate the New Year there. The square is on the place where French were defeated by English under Admiral Lord Nelson => there is Nelson’s column
- Piccadilly Circus– it is the biggest and oldest square in London => it is the heart of London’s entertainment world – there are many shops, restaurants, small theatres and night clubs. In the middle of Piccadilly there is a statue of EROS – the god of Love.
- Oxford Street– the biggest shopping street in London. There are many shopping centers and also many small shops.
PARKS IN LONDON:
- Hyde Park – the biggest park in London. In the Hyde Park there is a place called the Speaker’s corner where people can say their opinions on public, religious and political issues.
- St. James’ Park– it is oldest of the Royal Parks in the city of Westminster – it is east of the Buckingham Palace.
- Kensington Gardens- it is now a park, but in the past it was a private garden, which belonged to the Kensington Palace => we can see there the Albert Memorial, Peter Pan Statue and other buildings and monuments.
- General information
The USA is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China) => it’s area is 9,8 million km2.
It has the population of about 317 million people => the USA is a very multicultural country – there live many different races and religions – for example African-American, Asian, American-Indian, Eskimo, Hispanic people and so on.
The currency is 1 dollar which is divided into 100 cents. The official language is English but because there live many people from different countries, other languages are spoken as well. The capital city is WashingtonDC.
The USA borders in:
- NORTH => Canada
- SOUTH => Mexico
- EAST => the Atlantic ocean
- WEST => the Pacific ocean
A part of the USA is also Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands.
The USA can be divided into 5 main areas:
- The Appalachian Highlands
- MississippiBasin/or Interior Plains/
- the Cordilleras
- the Cascade Range
- Sierra Nevada
The highest peak of the USA is in Alaska - it is Mt.McKinley /6194 m/
The USA has many rivers:
- the Mississippi – the longest river /the 3rd longest river in the world/
- the Missouri
- the Hudson– connected with the Great Lakes
- the Colorado
- the Columbia
- the Rio Grande
- the Yukon– the biggest river in Alaska
There are some very important lakes on the US-Canada border – they are the biggest reservoirs of fresh water in the world. They are called the Great Lakes:
- Lake Superior
- Lake Michigan
- Lake Huron
- Lake Erie these 2 lakes are connected by the Niagara River /a part of the
- Lake OntarioSt. Lawrence River/and they form the famous Niagara Falls
Because the USA is a big country, there are big variations of climate => the temperatures change from the arctic cold in northern Alaska to subtropical warmth in Hawaii and in some other states – for example California, Florida… Florida has subtropical climate which often brings hurricanes.
Industry & agriculture
The US economy is the biggest in the world. The country is rich in raw materials - e.g. natural petrol, kaolin, salt, natural gas.
Philadelphia is the centre of machinery and chemical industry. Detroit is the centre of US car industry – there are companies such as Pontiac or Chrysler.
The USA is the leading country in agriculture – the American agricultural system is very effective - there are about 2 million farms in the USA and only about 2, 4 % of the population work on them – a lot of agricultural production is exported. The most important production is the production of soya, maize (= corn), wheat.
The US system of education
There are big differences between schools in different cities and states – there is no national school system – every state is responsible for its own school system.
School attendance is compulsory from the age of 6 to 16. The school uniforms are worn only in private schools.
Schools in the USA:
- Public - financed by state of local government – they are free
- Private - they charge high fees – they are attended mostly by the children of rich people – sometimes they offer scholarships
The history of the USA
The American continent was discovered by Vikings around the year 1000 A.D. People in Europe didn’t know about the existence of the American continent until 1492, when Columbus made his historical voyage from Spain.
The important points of the American history:
- In 1620 first people came to America on their ship called Mayflower– their first colonies were called New England and they were called the Pilgrim Fathers. During their first winter, over one half of the settlers died. The rest of them survived and learned how to farm. The following November after their 1st successful harvest, they celebrated and had a special “Thanksgiving” dinner– since then the Americans celebrate the Thanksgiving Day.
- The first 13 colonies were under the British control – American people wanted to be independent and they didn’t want to pay taxes to Britain. Because the British government didn’t agree to this, it lead to a mutiny - it was the Boston Tea party – when a group of Americans threw bags of tea into the sea as a protest – this event started a war– America won the war and on July 4, 1776 The Declaration of Independence was signed. The colonies became independent and that day was called the Independence day(they celebrate it as holiday in the USA now)
- The American civil warstarted in 1861- it is known as the war between the North and the South – the North fought for making slaver illegal – the North won the war.
- An important point in American history is also September 11, 2001 when terrorists attacked the Pentagon and the World Trade Centre (WTC) and many people died – since then America has been strongly fighting against terrorism.
Places of interest in the USA
The capital city of the USA. D.C. means “District of Columbia”. Washington is the seat of the White House – the seat of the President. Some interesting places in Washington:
- the Jefferson Memorial
- the White House
- the Arlington National Cemetery
- the Museum of Natural History
Las Vegas lies in Nevada. More than 12 million people visit Las Vegas every year. There are many nightclubs and casinos where people can gamble and get rich or loose a lot of money. In Las Vegas people can also see many famous singers, comedians dancers, musicians.
The largest city in the USA. The nicknames of NY are:
- Melting Pot – because it is a very multicultural city and people of many different races, religions and origins live there
- Big Apple
In New York we can visit:
- Manhattan – the real centre of NY. It is famous for its Manhattan skyline – a large number of skyscrapers on a small area. One of the highest skyscrapers is called the Empire State Building.
- Brooklyn – has a famous beach – Coney Beach
- The Bronx – there are many parks and the Bronx ZOO – one of the largest in the USA
The Statue of Liberty – in NY - was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy.
Los Angeles– California – a beautiful country with warm weather. There is the Disneyland
Dallas – the financial and commercial centre – John F. Kennedy was assassinated there in 1963
The National parks:
The USA has many national parks with beautiful nature – e.g. in the Rocky Mountains Region. The famous parks are in Utah, Texas, Arizona, and Nevada. The famous national parks are for example The Grand Canyon National Park/desserts/, Yellowstone National Park/beautiful mountains and waterfalls/, Death Valley National Park, Yosemite Valley National Park …
Americans play hockey, tennis, basketball and rugby. American football is very different from the football we play in Europe.
People sometimes say that the USA is the place, where all your dreams can come true. If you want to work, you can easily find a job and earn money. Therefore many young people want to work and live in the USA. If you want to travel, there are many interesting places that you can see. People are friendly and talk-active. It is also a very multicultural country, so you can meet people of different origin.
- General information:
Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world (after Russia) => its area is9, 98 km2.
It has the population of about 35 million people =>the majority is of European origin, the North American Indians, Eskimos.
The name “Canada” is of Indian origin and means “village” or “settlement”. The currency is 1 Canadian dollar which is divided into 100 cents.
The official languages are English and French. The capital city is Ottawa.
Canada is an independent federation within the Commonwealth. It is divided into:
- 10 provinces
- 2 territories
Canada borders in:
- NORTH => the Arctic ocean
- SOUTH => the USA
- EAST => the Atlantic ocean
- WEST => the Pacific ocean and Alaska (USA)
Western part of Canada, which is called the Cordillera, is very mountainous and rocky => there are the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains and other ranges. The highest peak of Canada is Mount Logan (5959m) – it is in Yukon. In the east there are the Appalachian Mountains but there are also many lowlands. In Canada, there are also large prairies suitable for agriculture.
The most important rivers are:
- the Winnipeg River
- the Saskatchewan River
- the St. Lawrence River
- the Columbia River
- the Mackenzie River – the longest river in Canada
The biggest lakes are:
- Great Bear Lake
- Great Slave Lake
- Lake Winnipeg
There are also other great lakes which Canada shares with the USA – Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior.
NIAGARA FALLS - the most famous water falls in the world – they lie on the Niagara river, which connects lake Erie and lake Ontario => they are made of American falls (which belong to the USA) and the Horseshoe Falls (which belong to Canada).
The most inhabited parts of Canada have continental climate – summers are hot and winters are cold. In the north, the climate is arctic.
Industry & agriculture
Canada is rich in raw materials - e.g. uranium, gold, zinc, silver, nickel... => mining industry
Canada has many forests – 1/3 of the country is covered with forest and wood industry is very important for them => Canada is a great exporter of wood and wood products.
Canada also belongs to the countries leading in agriculture – wheat; maple syrup is a typical Canadian product.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy within the British Commonwealth. The head of the state is the Queen Elizabeth II. and the head of the government is the Canadian Prime Minister.
Canada has 2 official languages and 2 systems of law:
- Civil law
- Common law
Parliamentis responsible for national defense, international trade, immigration, criminal law
The regional or provincial legislatures are responsible for education, civil rights, the hospital system, health care and social security within their boundaries.
Places of interest in Canada:
Ottawa– the capital city
The capital city is a business and technological centre of Canada – many big technological companies have their residence there – for example Alcatel. You can visit about 30 museums, 50 galleries, many night clubs and theatres => The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa Little Theatre, Canadian Museum of Civilization and so on, Ottawa International Jazz festival.
Toronto is the biggest city in Canada. It is a city of ethnic minorities. If you want to see the tallest building in the world today, you should travel to this city => there we can find the Canadian National Tower(CN Tower) – it is visited by about 2 million people every year because it is an excellent place for observation and it offers a beautiful view. There is a revolving restaurant in it.
The Toronto ZOO – the ZOO is divided into geographical regions and you can see there more than 5000 animals in their natural environment.
Canadian National Parks
Canada is famous for its beautiful nature, especially the forests. Parks are located across entire Canada and there are many protected plans and species of animals. There are many parks that are a big attraction to tourists – for example Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park, Fundy National Park, Terra Nova National Park, St. Lawrence Islands National Park, Greenwich, Prince Albert National Park
Montreal is the second biggest city in Canada, the biggest city in the province Quebec. It is a French speaking city. La Ronde is the biggest amusement park in Montreal => the Montreal Fireworks Festival is held there every summer. Tourists often visit also the Old Montreal, which is the historical part of the city – there is the Old port.
Canadian people are very good at playing hockey – they have won many national competitions and cups. Other sports played in Canada are for example basketball, golf and so on.
Canadian people are friendly and Canada is a good country for newcomers. It is amulticultural country.
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
Australia is the smallest continent on the Earth. It has the population of about 18 million people. The capital city is Canberra. The currency is 1 AUD /Australian dollar/ and the official language spoken is English.
Australia is situated between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean. The island of Tasmania and some other islands belong to Australia. It is a federal state and it consists of /pozostáva z/:
- 6 states /provinces/
- 2 territories
The largest cities in Australia are: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
The neighboring countries:
-Papua New Guinea
-the Solomon Islands
-New Zealand …
In central Australia there are 3 deserts:
- Gibson Desert
- Great Victoria Desert
Interesting places in Australia:
Sydney– a place where in 2000 the Olympic Games were held – it is a popular tourist place => there is the famous Opera House – there are many cultural events held – concerts, theatre performance, modern dance and so on. Some people go to Sydney to climb the Sydney Harbour Bridge – it’s a very adrenalin experience.
Canberra– the capital city of Australia and the biggest city in Australia – people can see the Australian National Gallery, the Canberra Theatre and Playhouse, the Australian War Memorial and other places. The National Library of Australia is also famous – a copy of every book which is published in Australia, must be held by the National Library of Australia => it is given by Australian law.
Melbourne– visitors go to Melbourne to see the Carlton Gardens, the Melbourne Museum and other sightseeing places.
New Zealand is an island state in Oceania => it is situated in the Pacific ocean. It has the population of about 4 million people. It consists of:
- 2 main islands:
- the North Island
- the South Island
- many smaller islands
The nearest neighbors are:
- New Caledonia
The capital city is Wellington.The official head of New Zealand is Queen Elizabeth II. The official languages are English and Maori.
Other big cities in New Zealand: Auckland, Christchurch, Hamilton.
Auckland–it is in the North Island => visitors can see many beautiful parks in Auckland – for example Auckland Domain, Albert Park, and Victoria Park.
Christchurch – in the South Island => it was named after the Christ Church Cathedral
Wellington– it is the capital city of New Zealand => the seat of the parliament. It is the political centre of New Zealand, but also the centre of theatre and film industry => visitors can visit the Museum of New Zealand, the Royal New Zealand Ballet. There are also many night clubs, art and cultural events => people living in Wellington have a very good quality of life according to statistics.
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