Food and Meals topic
Typ práce: Maturita
Počet zobrazení: 53
Food and Meals topic
I don’t eat to live, but I live for eating… This sentence is often said by gourmets. For many people in our country food, eating, sometimes also cooking, is a downright pleasure. People eat mostly three times a day. They have breakfast, lunch and dinner. However, dietologists say that it is healthier to eat more often and have smaller portions.
Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the most important meal of the day, there are studies that find, that people who skip breakfast are more likely to have problems with concentration, metabolism, and weight. Breakfast literally means "breaking the fast" of the night. Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include a carbohydrates and proteins source with some kind of beverage. A light variant can consist of tea, juice, breakfast cereals or fresh fruit. Unhealthier variant includes coffee, pancakes, muffins, sausages, bacon, sweet breads or eggs.
Lunch – a middle-day meal – in some countries consists of soup, main course and dessert, but in many other countries lunch means only soup and some light meal. The difference between those who work through lunch and those who take it off could be a matter of cultural, social class, bargaining power, or the nature of the work.
Dinner is usually the name of the main meal of the day. Depending upon culture, dinner may be the second, third or fourth meal of the day. "Dinner" sometimes denotes a formal meal where people who dine together are formally dressed and consume food with an array of utensils. Dinners are often divided into 3 courses. And one curiosity in the end: In Medieval Europe people had only two meals during the day -- a heavy dinner at noon and a light supper. It largely due to the influence of the Church.
For many people in our country food, eating, sometimes also cooking, is downright a pleasure. There are some people who eat just once a day, others are figure-conscious and try to fast, cut down on some fat and sugar, or go on a slimming diet. Many other people do not care much about meals.
The Slovaks are used to eating many floury, sweet and fatty meals, such as dumplings, pastry and sausages. Our food should consist of more vegetables, fruit, poultry and fish which would supply our bodies with more vitamins and minerals.
In different parts of Britain people have different eating habits. They have five or six meals a day: breakfast, elevenses, lunch, tea, dinner and later perhaps supper.
The British like to begin the day with a cup of coffee or tea. Then they have an enjoyable breakfast, they do not like to hurry. Unlike Slovaks who have their morning cup of coffee or tea, a roll or a slice of bread, some cheese, ham, or a cake in hurry, the English take their time having breakfast.
The renowned English breakfast starts with a glass of juice and a cereal, usually cornflakes with milk or cream and sugar, or porridge. This is followed by fried bacon and eggs, sausages or grilled tomatoes or spicy beans in tomato sauce. They drink it down with many cups of coffee rather than tea and buttered toast and marmalade.
But such rich breakfast is not as common as it used to be, it is served in hotels, restaurants if you ask for English breakfast or at weekends when people have more time. For most Englishmen breakfast is a bowl of cereal followed by toast and marmalade, and coffee or tea, of course.
In the middle of the morning they have elevenses, which is usually not more than a cup of coffee and biscuits. Sometimes, often at weekends, when they get up later, they have brunch, a combination meal which is eaten for breakfast and lunch.
The midday meal is generally called lunch and is usually fairly light. Lunch often consists of a hot dish, or a salad, or ham and cheese sandwiches, or pizza, or hamburgers and a dessert.
Lunch is the main meal of the day in Slovakia. We can have it at home, at work canteen or dining halls, cafeterias or in a restaurant. It is usually a three-course meal which consists of a soup, the main course sometimes a dessert. An appetizer is served only on special occasions. The Slovak menu often offers a roasted pork with dumplings or potato dumplings and cabbage or sauerkraut. Another typical main dish is a fried pork chop with boiled potatoes or chips and a vegetable salad, Wiener schnitzel with potato salad or goulash. Sometimes another Slovak speciality is prepared – dumplings with soft cheese called “bryndza” and with bacon. Slovak beer or any of the soft drinks (mineral water, coke, lemonade, juice or just soda) are served with it.
Around four o’clock it is teatime. While in our country an afternoon snack is not common, in Britain it is a special occasion. The traditional tea consists of thin slices of white or brown bread and butter with cheese, fish or ham, perhaps some vegetables, and jam, cakes, fruit pies, biscuits and tea or coffee which in England are drunk with milk. Nowadays many people do not eat much at teatime but they have at least one cup of coffee or tea.
The hot dinner in England is served around 7 o’clock and may have three or four courses. It consists of soup or some other starter, then the main course (meat or fish with vegetables) which is followed by a dessert and finally perhaps cheese and biscuits. The meat may be a stewed, chops, a meat pie, or fish if it is Sunday, with potatoes and one or two of the other vegetables (carrots, beans, peas, Brussels sprouts, cabbage or broccoli). Beef and mutton or lamb are much more favoured than pork. As a dessert you may have fruit, fruit salad, fruit pie, cake, pudding with custard, jelly with cream, trifle or ice cream. With the meal they may have beer, cider or wine. They finish their dinner with coffee rather than tea.
The Slovak evening meal is not so nutritious if people have a hot meal at midday. It may be some cold meat, salami, ham, cheese, eggs, bread or rolls and some vegetables. Some people prefer a hot meal too. They may have pancakes, pizza, pasta, risotto. Some people may have a similar dish as at midday except soup, although some thick soup with bread may be a separate evening meal.
On some special occasions such as Christmas, traditional food is served both in Britain and in our country. Fish soup, fried carp and potato salad are commonly made for Christmas Eve. As a dessert home-made sweets are served. There is a superstition about New Year’s Day dinner. You should not have any poultry on that day, otherwise you will miss your good luck in the next year. The British Christmas Day meal is roast turkey with chestnut stuffing, potatoes and the renowned Christmas pudding and mince pies as a sweet.
People can choose from a variety of eating places when they want to eat out. The busiest places tend to be burger bars, pizzerias and other fast food outlets. They are popular with both young people and whole families. Many people eat out at Italian, Mexican, Thai, Chinese and Indian restaurants and at ‘curry’ and ‘steak’ houses. On special occasions people go to smarter and more expensive restaurants which offer both national and international cuisine. With great variety of food available at relatively low prices, eating out has become very common.
Etiquette at the table
At the table you have to behave according to social principles. You shouldn`t start eating before other people have served and leave the table immediately after the dinner.
In some countries table manners are similar and in England and Slovakia too. It`s considered rude to eat and drink noisily, to wipe the plate with bread, to pick at food with hands, to read at the table, to rest your elbows at the table, to reach across the table in front of people. When we need something we have to ask another person to give it us. Also you have to ask permission if you want to smoke between courses or anywhere in other people`s home. In Slovakia people usually smoke on the balcony or in a room for smokers. Never clink glasses when drinks are served before meals. It will be considered impolite if you yourself are entertained and do not talk to your neighbours on your right and left. Make your food last till the others have nearly finished eating so that you all finish at the same time.
At the formal dinner the cutlery is placed in the order in which it will be used. The fork is laid on the left side of the plate with points up. On the right side of the plate knife and spoon are laid. The knife is first with blade next to the plate and then the spoon. The dessert spoon and fork are laid on the edges of the place setting. The glass should be on the right and the bowl for stewed fruit on the left side above the fork. When you finish eating the knife and fork should be laid side by side in the middle of your plate and plate can be removed. If you leave them apart, it will show that you have not yet finished eating. You’re supposed to thank for the meal but it’s not as expected as in Britain.
We have different eating habits, too. Some of us prefer eating in the morning, others like to enjoy their meal in the evening. Everyone responds differently to food in the morning: some people feel sleepy and unable to function after eating a large breakfast, whereas others need a rich breakfast before they start their everyday activities.
Breakfast provides an invaluable opportunity to enable you to maximize your well-being. A bowl of fresh fruit salad, eaten shortly after getting up, for example, will provide a slow release of energy to help you get through the morning, as well as a healthy dose of vitamins and minerals. Scrambled eggs on toast, on the other hand, supply a dose of protein that gets towards building up your muscles, which is particularly necessary if you expend a lot of physical energy during the day.
Eating habits are influenced by things like our work, lifestyle, current economic situation and current feelings. In Slovakia, women, spend a lot of time cooking because they think that homemade food is much better than food you buy ready-made at the store, because it tastes fresher. People also think that homemade food shows that you care more about both the food and about the people who are going to eat it because of the time and effort needed to make it.
Convenience food is food which is easy to prepare and can be used at any time, for example canned or frozen food. Many people, who live on their own prefer this style of eating. A frozen but fully-prepared store-bought dinner, which you just heat up and eat at home is called a TV dinner.
At work, some people usually have a sandwich and instant soup, which can be very quickly prepared. Others have their meals in the canteen or go to a fast food place.
Traditional Slovak eating and drinking habits date back to the old Slavic period and were later influenced by Hungarian Austrian and German cuisine. Slovak food is based on many different kinds of soups, boiled and stewed vegetables, roasted and smoked meats and dairy products. Cooking styles vary from region to region. Slovak specialities include both salty and sweet dishes made with flour and potatoes, including dumplings. One such dish is the popular “bryndzové halušky”.
The tradition of beer brewing has its roots in Slovakia as well. But Slovaks are more known by wine rather than beer drinkers. Today there are three main wine regions in Slovakia (a large region in the southwest on the Hungarian plane, a small region between Bratislava and Trnava, and the eastern Tokay region near the Hungarian border).
Among popular Slovak distillates, the most popular is a plum brandy called Slivovica, aged for 3 years in oak barrels. Another leading brandy is a genuine juniper brandy called Borovička, which has a taste similar to that of dry gin.
What’s the favourite food in Britain? You may have heard that it is fish and chips or even bangers and mash (sausages and mashed potatoes). Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding is almost always on the menu in the same way that “rezeň so zemiakmi” is in Slovakia. However, in recent years the eating habits of the British have changed.
In the mid-1960s Chinese food came to Britain and the takeaway was born. Chinese and Indian takeaways became very popular and still are. A recent survey discovered that the most popular food in Britain is now Chicken Tikka Masala, a spicy Indian dish. This shows the influence of international cuisine on the British diet.
Each region of Britain has its own traditional specialities. In Scotland, haggis with “neeps” and “tatties” (turnips and potatoes” is the traditional dish for Burns night, the anniversary of the birth of the Scottish poet Robert Burns. Haggis is a sheep’s stomach stuffed with meat and vegetables. In Wales, Welsh lamb has the reputation of being very tasty and tender. They also have a kind of lamb soup called cawl.
The traditional meal of the year is on 25 December and consists of roast turkey (with all the trimmings) followed by Christmas pudding with brandy sauce.
The main aim of people is to reduce the amount of fatty foods and sugar in diets and to encourage themselves to eat more fruit and vegetables. Although many people still enjoy a “fry-up”, which is fried bacon, sausage and egg with fried bread or the popular “national meal” of fish and chips, there has evidently been a gradual move towards eating healthier low-fat foods. Health risks are currently discussed by the media and experts, who warn people to be concerned about chemicals sprayed onto crops, and the amount of additives and preservatives in food. Supermarkets sell organic food and products, i.e. cereals and vegetables grown without the use of chemicals. Unfortunately, the main reason that often discourages people from buying these is their higher price.
Both Slovaks and Britons believe that food has an important effect on their health, but they do not always eat in a healthy way. Many prefer junk food, including fast food, snacks like potato crisps and biscuits, fizzy drinks and ice cream. But more and more people eat only healthy food, take vitamins and mineral supplements and try to use olive oil, oats and garlic in their dishes. Of course, there is always a battle between what people want to eat and what is good for them. Many people weigh too much, and obesity has become almost a nation-wide problem.
Certain foods are considered essential to traditional British cooking. These include bread, pastry, dairy products and potatoes, especially chips, which are eaten at lunch or dinner. They are an important part of the traditional meal of meat and two veg, i.e. meat, potatoes and another vegetable. A “jacket potato” a potato baked whole in the skin with cheese is a popular “pub lunch”. Because of various health worries, many people now eat less meat, and some have become vegetarians and choose not to eat meat at all, or vegans – people who eat no meat or animal products.
Vegetarians eat only food such as vegetables, grains, fruit and eggs, either for moral reasons or because it is ought to be healthier. There are some arguments in favour of vegetarianism. Vegetarians are less likely to suffer from heart diseases, because it is unhealthy to eat too much meat. Some people are vegetarians because they don’t like the cruel treatment of animals so their eating habits are a form of protest, as well. Vegans not only don’t eat meat and fish, they don’t eat any animal products. Many doctors believe that a natural diet for a human should contain both animal and vegetable products. A good balance provides all the necessities that cannot be synthesized in the human body. Others believe that a well-balanced vegetarian diet avoids many, if not all, of the dietary dangers that can contribute to disease of the heart and blood vessels, as well as other diseases.
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