Clothing and fashion topic
Typ práce: Maturita
Počet zobrazení: 47
Clothing and fashion topic
People have different attitudes to fashion. Some do not care what they wear, others, especially women are interested in fashion. Fashion is the style of dress and behaviour that is common or popular at a certain time. New styles, materials, shapes and patterns appear, last for a certain time, disappear and later come back a little bit changed. Many young people are fashion-conscious and try to follow the latest trends in fashion, watching fashion shows and reading fashion magazines. Clothes also provide various important functions:
Protective – to protect us against cold, frost, rain, sun etc.
Decorative – to look nice, to be ready especially for formal events, ceremonies, rituals
Emotional – to express our emotions and feelings (especially through colours)
Social – to show which social class we belong to, to show specific social status
There are several elements which influence choosing clothes:
- age (older people wear more conservative clothes)
- religion (Islamic women wear long, dark clothes and veils to cover their whole body)
- financial situation (people buy what they can afford)
- mood (when you are happy you wear bright colours, when you are sad – dark colours)
- interests, attitudes, status in society (boss wears suit, artists - extravagant clothes, some people wear uniforms, overalls, casual clothes)
- weather, climate, occasion (where they are going)
- style - elegant, comfortable, smart, conservative, scruffy, cool, chic, trendy, old-fashioned, in,
Some people buy ready-made clothes, other prefer to have them made or buy them at a second-hand shops.
Fashion concerns not only clothes, but also hair style, make-up, accessories, such as shoes, handbags, gloves, belts, hats, scarves, or jewellery and glasses.
Styles, cuts, designs and length of clothes change very quickly. We can note various types of neckline (low, oval, V-neck, boat neck, tie or polo neck, with collar or collarless) and various cuts of sleeves (long, short, dropped shoulder). The dress may have a classic line or be straight; the waistline may be natural, high or low. At one time straight or slit skirts are in, at another full, bell-shaped or divided skirts become trendy.
There is also a variety of materials, the dress can be made of – traditional natural materials such as cotton, wool, linen, silk and the vast collection of new fabrics based on man-made fibres. But everybody usually looks for first class, washable, non-iron and shrink-resistant fabric. Their design can be plain, patterned (flowered, geometric, striped, checked, dotted or spotted) and coloured.
A persons’ choice of suitable clothing is also influenced by climate and weather. In colder countries, people prefer to wear clothes which protect their body from the cold. They usually wear suits, trousers, woollies, cardigans, polo-neck sweaters, jumpers, anoraks and parkas, winter coats and jackets, sometimes even a fur coat, gloves and mittens, caps, hoods, hats, scarves and mufflers, and boots of course. In hot countries, people put on light clothes, use materials which allow sweat to evaporate and cool their bodies. Straw hats protect their heads against the sun’s rays. In summer we wear light summer dresses, loose blouses with a low neckline and with short sleeves or without sleeves, skirts, trousers, shorts or Bermuda shorts and various T-shirts, and on our feet we pull on sandals, mules, flip-flops or plimsolls.
Casual clothes are worn for everyday purposes. People working in banks and offices are usually more dressed up: men in suits, shirts in different colours, ties and suitable shoes, mostly black or brown leather. Women wear suits too, fashionable tops or blouses, various accessories and leather shoes. On special occasions (e.g. balls, special dinners) we like to be dressed properly. When we go to a concert or to the theatre we prefer to wear an evening dress, which consists of a dark suit, a light shirt and a tie or a bow-tie, sometimes a dinner jacket, an evening gown, court shoes and pumps.
In some jobs (doctors, nurses, policemen, soldiers, firefighters) people have to wear uniforms, white coats, costumes, aprons, overalls. In some British schools children have to wear uniforms as well.
For sports we put on sportswear, such as shorts, T-shirts, blazers, track suits and sports shoes (trainers, heavy boots or ski shoes). When we go swimming we put on a swim suit or trunks, sometimes a straw hat. At home we like to feel comfortable, and so we prefer leisure wear – slacks, jeans, and T-shirts and on our feet slippers or mules. To school we wear something practical. The most favourite wear of teenagers includes jeans, trousers, shirts and T-shirts or different colours, sweatshirts or pullovers and trainers.
Some people do not choose their dress with regard to the latest fashion. They wear what suits them and what they can afford. The most important thing is that clothes are clean, they look smart and elegant and they feel comfortable.
Most people prefer buying clothes in shops instead of e-shops because if the clothes suit them and fit, they just pay and leave. Some women like clothes made by dressmakers or they make them themselves. If men need suits or coats, they ask tailor to make these especially for them or they can choose from standardized sizes (which is cheaper, but they don’t fit that well).
A dress code is a set of written and, more often, unwritten rules with regard to clothing. Clothing, like other aspects of human physical appearance, has a social significance, with different rules and expectations applying depending on circumstance and occasion. Within a single day, an individual may need to navigate between two or more dress codes. For example, many navigate between a home dress code and a work dress code; usually this ability is a result of cultural acclimatization Different societies and cultures will have different dress norms, although Western styles are widely accepted as valid.
The dress code has built in rules or signals indicating the message being given by a person's clothing and how it is worn. This message may include indications of the person's gender, income, occupation and social class, political, ethnic and religious affiliation, attitude towards comfort, fashion, traditions, gender expression, marital status, sexual availability, and sexual orientation, etc. Clothes convey other social messages including the stating or claiming personal or cultural identity, the establishing, maintaining, or defying social group norms, and appreciating comfort and functionality.
For example, wearing expensive clothes can communicate wealth, the image of wealth, or to quality clothing. The observer sees the expensive clothes, but may misinterpret the extent to which these factors apply to the wearer. Clothing can convey a social message, even if none is intended: if the receiver's code of interpretation differs from the sender's code of communication, misinterpretation follows. However clothes may be worn because they are comfortable and practical, not to convey a message.
In every culture, current fashion governs how clothing is constructed, assembled, and worn to convey a social message. The rate of change of fashion varies, clothes and its accessories within months or days, especially in small social groups or in communications media-influenced modern societies. More extensive changes, requiring more time, money, and effort to effect, may span generations. When fashion changes, the messages communicated by clothing change.
Colours play an important role in fashion. White is a typical colour for babies to wear when they are christened, and brides dress in white for church weddings because white represents purity and virginity. A baby’s sex is sometimes distinguished by colours: little girls are dressed in pink and red, while little boys are in blue or light-green. Today, people like to have a free choice.
Some colours suit some people more than others so people can be classified by the colours they wear: “cold” and “warm”. While cold types prefer darker colours (grey, navy blue, grey-blue, black), brighter colours are suitable for warm types (beige, cream white, light-blue, brown). Some people choose colours according to their current mood. When they are happy, the colours are bright and light, but when they are sad or edgy, the colours are dark.
Personalities also decide people’s lifestyles, and the style of clothes one wears is an important part of the lifestyle. What a person wears is an expression of his personality.
Taking care of clothes:
- All clothes require special care.
- We should read the washing and ironing instructions on the clothes labels very carefully.
- Some clothes have to be washed only by hand. If they are washed in a washing machine on a high temperature, they can shrink or become larger.
- Greasy stains can be washed with stain removers. We can use ice to remove chewing gum stuck on jeans.
- If we aren't sure how to care about certain clothes, we can go to a launderette or dry cleaners and have them washed and ironed there.
- We can't wash coloured clothes with the white ones.
- We should put dresses, shirts (skirts) on hangers, other items should be nicely folded in drawers.
- We shouldn't let the coloured clothes in the sunlight, because they can fade.
Fashion begins in the international world of haute couture (French…high-end fashion), which is led by top fashion designers and fashion houses. There is great public interest in fashion shows where the latest styles are presented on the catwalk by highly paid supermodels, but very few people are expected to wear such clothes. Fashion magazines such as Vogue and numerous TV programmes on clothes and fashion show the latest styles. Only a few people can afford to buy designer label clothing, but there are also many young designers and less expensive labels that are popular especially among young people. The most popular designer houses include Calvin Klein, Karl Lagerfeld, Vivien Westwood, Kenzo, Ralph Lauren, Giorgio Armani, Hugo Boss, Donna Karan, Yves Saint Laurent, Gucci, Dior, Dolce and Gabbana and Donatella Versace.
“Clothes make a man“. “You are what you wear”.
These old sayings are true because clothes reveal people's origin, religion and even financial situation. They indicate their status in society. Fashion is also self-expression, especially for young people. They can show their mood, interests, attitudes, character, music they like. The way people are dressed on different occasions also indicates their character and personality. People nowadays are quite proud to wear formal clothes not only, that they must in certain situations, but it looks elegant and they can be comfortable too. For example very popular movie Kingsman is based on men’s formal fashion, wearing suit is privilege with adequate behaviour.
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