Man and Society topic

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 23.03.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Man and Society topic 

Society involves whole population, the way how people live together and also institutions they’ve developed. Living in a society requires following certain rules of behaviour. We can compare American and British society.

American society

  • People should be free on making decisions and choices.
  • Individuals will take responsibility for themselves, and do not rely on society.
  • Class or social status depends on a personal achievements, not on family background.
  • Americans are religious people, family – conscious, what seems to be stereotype, which doesn’t really reflect the real situation.
  • Multicultural society – cultural melting pot.

U.K.

  • Since 1930 modern British society has become more selfish, individualistic.
  • Social classes: Royal family, Cords (=bishops, archbishops), aristocracy, army…
  • Money, education and employment take important role in their society, they’re much more important than family.
  • The view of women and men has changed – new trends in society has led to equality among men and women.
  • The status of men and women at work, home, public has changed.
  • Nowadays, older generation is less respected than they deserve and they’re becoming a burden for their families.

Humans, from the very beginning, were not able to live on their own and so started to form a bigger group. These organised groups created their system of laws and accepted behaviour which can be defined as a society. These laws and behaviour make it possible for people to live together.

Society takes care of its members. Many countries support the idea of government, money paid to people who are unemployed. While some people think that this social security is too low, others do not agree with somebody receiving money but not trying to find work and make a lot of claims for money of other taxpayers. The social work of government is aimed at improving bad social conditions and helping people in need.

It is extremely important to show children what is right and what is wrong from an early age.

Children and young people observe the moral rules unconsciously and behave according to what they see. They pick it up from their parents, teachers and friends. Family is where behaviour is formed. Small thing such us talking to people with respect, listening to them, showing empathy, praising the other for their achievements, should be common in every family. Their absence leads to raising ill-mannered children. Parents should also be careful and practice what they preach.

Rules of behaviour are taught at school, too. Children can attend at school either the classes of religion or ethics. Both of them try to teach children and young people how to differentiate between good and evil, between what is moral and what is immoral.

The loss of manners is serious problem in modern societies. Most children are educated by media. The cartoon characters, movies and games – rude and violent. Idols from reality shows influence the values of young people. The acquired negative patterns of behaviour in childhood are hardly changed later in adulthood.

The huge difference between how children are raised nowadays and how our parents and grandparents were raised lead to big generation gap.

Ethics is the study of morals which deals with moral rules or principles of behaviour governing a person or group. Ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that set as rules what humans should do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness or specific virtues. Ethical standards also include those that encourage virtues of honesty, compassion and loyalty. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy.

Ethics also prescribe the way in which people communicate, show their respect for other people, how to greet people with warmth, offer hospitality to guests, wear clothing appropriate for certain occasions, contribute the conversations without dominating them, listen to speakers, offer a chair, help those who need assistance, eat neatly and quietly, avoid disturbing others (music, noise), arrive on time and respond to invitations promptly.

The exact rules connected with hosting guests, dining, clothing etc. are specific for different cultures.

However, there are rules which are universal all around the world – be polite, respect local customs and people, say magic words: Thank you, Please, Sorry, show interest in other culture, ask questions, and listen to answers.

Etiquette can be defined as the formal rules of correct or polite behaviour in society or among members of a particular profession. There are certain rules how to be polite greeting each other. Younger people greet older, men greet women etc.

There are some special conventions for how to behave in certain places, e.g. women covering their heads or shoulders when entering a church, men taking off hats in a church or women wearing knee-length skirts for business and diplomacy.

Being respectful and considerate of others is the main idea behind rules of behaviour. Here are some etiquette tips for going to the theatre:

  • avoid being late, turn up at the theatre a couple of minutes early
  • if you arrive late, wait patiently until there is a break in the performance
  • turn off cell phones, pagers and other electronic devices
  • do not talk, whisper, drink or eat during the performance
  • use the restroom during the intermission
  • during curtain call, do not rush for the exits

Manners are taught as soon as your child understands what you are saying, but they will need coaching and reminders on manners throughout their childhood. When the child does something right let them know, when your child does something wrong, do not be negative about it, but gently tell them how to do it better and why. Here are some basic manners for young people:

  • wait your turn and do not interrupt other people when they are speaking
  • always greet someone when they come over to your house
  • say please and thank you often, it shows respect and appreciation
  • clean up after yourself
  • don’t stuff your mouth full of food, it looks disgusting and you could choke
  • don’t make any rude comments about any food being served

Impolite – go to someone’s house without arranging it first, to ask for more unless your host offers it

Polite – arrive on time (not too early in case your host is not ready), give him or her a small present.

There are different styles of dining: (European style is where you keep the knife in your right hand and eat with your fork in the left). When you've finished with the meal place the fork and knife side by side on the plate. Examples:

  • Clean and spotless tablecloth should be spread on the table.
  • On the table there must be a knife, a spoon, a fork and glasses.
  • Books, magazines, newspaper shouldn't be on the table
  • Don’t gobble.
  • You shouldn’t put your elbows on the table.
  • You shouldn’t speak during the eating.
  • You shouldn’t eat with your fingers.
  • You shouldn’t talk with your mouth full (of food).
  • You shouldn’t pick your teeth with your fingers.
  • You shouldn’t put your knife into your mouth and lick it.
  • You should eat smaller quantity of food.
  • You should use a napkin.

When something great happens to a friend, family member or colleague, congratulations are in order!

  • Bring up the accomplishment. Don't skirt around the issue when there's something to celebrate! Mention the reason that congratulations are in order right off the bat. If you want, you can tell the person how you heard the news. This will set the right tone and make it easier to say the right words and share in the person's excitement.
  • Mention your feelings on the subject. If it's appropriate, you can follow up the word "congratulations" with an expression of how you feel. For example, you could say that you've enjoyed watching the person work toward his or her goal, or simply say "I'm really happy for you." Be as expressive as you want, keeping in mind that your tone of voice will really make a difference.
  • Try to make it heartfelt. No matter why you're congratulating someone, try to make your words and actions as genuine as possible. Of course, there are moments when it's necessary to congratulate someone when you're not feeling particularly happy for them, and in those cases you just have to fake it as well as you can. But try to remember that you'll have your turn in the spotlight at some point, and there's nothing wrong with celebrating someone else and trying your best to emanate positive vibes instead of nursing jealous thoughts.
  • Send an email or card. In addition to saying "congrats" in person, you might want to send a congratulatory note. You could send a simple email or Facebook note, or write a message on a card you pick out from the stationary store. The note you write should include the basics - a mention of the accomplishment, the word "congratulations," and a few happy sentiments.
  • Send a gift. If the occasion is special enough to merit a gift, something thoughtful and not too expensive is usually the right way to go. Choose a gift that lets the person know you want to celebrate with them and send it with a note of congratulations.
  • Congratulate someone for getting through a tough time. If you notice that someone has overcome some personal hurdles, you might want to show your encouragement and love by congratulating them.

How to Greet someone in Britain

  • The Handshake - A handshake is the most common form of greeting among the English and British people and is customary when you are introduced to somebody new.
  • The Kiss - It is only when you meet friends, whom you haven't seen for a long time, that you would kiss the cheek of the opposite sex. In Britain one kiss is generally enough.
  • Formal greetings - The usual formal greeting is a 'How do you do?' and a firm handshake, but with a lighter touch between men and women.
  • ‘How do you do?’ is a greeting not a question and the correct response is to repeat ‘How do you do?' You say this when shaking hands with someone.
  • 'How are you?' is a question and the most common and polite response is "I am fine thank you and you?"
  • Nice to meet you – Nice to meet you too. (Often said whilst shaking hands)
  • Delighted to meet you– Delighted to meet you too.
  • Pleased to meet you – Pleased to meet you too. .
  • Glad to meet you - Glad to meet you too
  • Good Morning / Good Afternoon / Good Evening
  • Informal greetings
  • Hi - Hi or hello
  • Morning / Afternoon / Evening (We drop the word 'Good' in informal situations).
  • How's you? - Fine thanks. You?
  • Thank you / thanks / cheers
  • We sometimes say 'cheers' instead of thank you. You may hear 'cheers' said instead of 'good bye', what we are really saying is 'thanks and bye'.

Society is ruled by laws. The man who breaks law must be punished.

Moral – behaviour, our manners, etiquette. It is unwritten law of how to behave in different situations. It includes etiquette – greeting, meeting, took manners, public behaviour and privacy behaviour

Laws – general laws and rules accepted by nation and the whole population. Human rights are accepted all over the world – right for living, freedom, health care, personal development, education, freedom of speech, work.

Rules – are created by the parliament – it’s the supreme legislative law of country. The members of parliament make suggestions of the laws and then vote for it – the rule must be accepted by the majority of members of parliament.

Crime – laws and their breaking

Everyone who lives in a society must keep its rules. Every society has its own moral rules of behaviour. Society has a right to expect people to obey the law. A criminal must pay for his crime. The price he has to pay depends on the seriousness of the crime he commits. He can be put in a jail (prison). Criminals can also do social welfare work or community service. Some people are demanding the return of capital punishment (death penalty) for murder.

Kinds of criminality:

  • speeding – driving faster you are legally allowed to
  • kidnapping – the crime of taking sb away by force and demanding money for his/her safe return
  • theft – the crime of stealing something
  • robbery – the crime of stealing money or other things from a bank, shop, or person, especially
  • burglary – the crime of entering a building illegally in order to steal
  • murder – when someone is deliberately killed
  • hijacking – taking control of a plane
  • vandalism – damaging public places just for fun
  • manslaughter - killing without intention
  • terrorism, shoplifting, blackmail, assassination

Punishments:

  • sentence – a punishment given by a judge in a court
  • fine – an amount of money that you must pay as a punishment
  • death sentence (death penalty) capital punishment
  • community service – unpaid work helping other people that someone does as punishment for a crime
  • corporal punishment – when someone punishes a child by hitting them

Solving conflicts:

  • Aggression – it is very common, but not very suitable for resolving the conflict, because it worsens the situation and it becomes violent. It’s the most common way but the worst solution.
  • Ignoring – person says nothing which is not very effective. It bottles up both sided feeling. It can be very negative in long term.
  • Mediation – someone from outside solve the conflict=mediator. It’s useful at serious conflicts. It’s better to solve the problems yourselves.
  • Negotiation – the best way of solving conflicts. You should find out what the other person wants. You should try to explain clearly what you want.

People should propose solutions which everybody argues with and make suggestions. The solving of conflicts should be constructive. You should speak clearly, firmly and be aware of your body language. You should never shout.

Sponsorship – to sponsor something is to support an event, activity, person, organization financially or through the provision of products or services. A sponsor is the individual or group.

Kinds of sponsorships in UK:

  • Child sponsorship – allows an individual typically in a developed country to sponsor or fund a child in developing country. Financially supporting the education, health or security of the sponsored child.
  • Commercial – cash or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property.
  • State Support – various forms, for those without jobs (jobseekers’), allowance and income support depending on their circumstances. People can apply for housing Benefit, help with childcare, illness, disability and others.
  • Income Support
    • Maternity pay, if you work and have a baby, whether you work full or part-time job, you have the right to receive Statutory Maternity Pay as long as you meet certain conditions. You must have been employed for at least 26 weeks. Earn an average of at least 95£ a week.
    • Retirement pension – a pension is an arrangement to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment. A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee referred to as employer pension. Created funds for citizens to provide income when they retire. This require payments throughout the citizen’s working life.
    • Disability pensions – provide for members in the event they suffer a disability. This may take the form of early entry into retirement plan for a disabled member below the normal retirement age.
    • Widow’s pension – is payable to childless widows when their husband died, also is payable to widows with children when their widow mother’s allowance ends.
    • Housing benefit – if you are on a low income and need financial help to pay all or part of your rent, you may be able to get Housing Benefit. If you pay rent and your income and capital are below a certain level.
    • Child Benefit – tax-free payment that you can claim for your child paid every 4 weeks, or weekly (in some cases). Who can get this? Child under 16, child over 16 and in education or training qualifies, to 26 if he or she is a student…
    • Unemployment benefit – payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people. For people of working age who are out of work or work less than 16 hours a week. You must:
      • be looking for full time work
      • 18 years old and over
      • have been working for one company 3 years without interruption.

It’s for 6 months.

  • Social fund – can give amount of money to people on low incomes. The amount is strictly limited.
  • Non-financial Support – Jobcentres help people to look for work, deal with living on a low income or start a business, help with illness, accidents caused by work.
  • Social Security – refers to social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, and others. Social Insurance, Income Maintenance, Social Protection.
  • Moral Support – it is a way of giving support to a person without making any contributions beyond the emotional or psychological value of the encouragement.
  • Charity – means the giving of help to those in need who are not related to giver.

Organization is a type of non-profit organization, it’s the act of giving money, goods or time to unfortunate, directly or by means of charitable trust.

There are some public organizations such as “Hodina deťom” and so on. Also volunteers with collecting boxes in the streets asking for money.

Society shapes our family lives in several way, three of which are:

  1. Financially

The society affects us by bombarding our families with suggestions for wants and needs that we may or may not be able to afford. These range from housing choices, to schooling choices for college, shopping options, places to go, and things to do for which we would have to invest from our budget. If this constant exposure did not occur, perhaps the family unit would make less biased decisions on how they would spend their dollars.

  1. Behaviourally

The society affects us by the dyadic division of individuals and groups by preferences, race, language, commonalities, religion, ethnicity, and preferences. If you live in a place where customs are nowhere like what you are used to, you will behaviourally choose to either join them or radically isolate yourself from the group. Since the latter is not the likeliest choice, chances are that in some way or another, regardless of how independently you live, you will still acquire one or two mannerisms from your immediate social circle such as accent, drawl, idioms, intonations, or customs.

  1. Intellectually (Cognitively)

What society offers us we either take or not. If society offers a higher quality of life where our quality is valued, we would make very high-thinking analyses on where we want society to go, and what role we play within it. We also would question how we can help improve the quality of our social strata, and we also would want to find benchmarks, philosophical foundations, and recent research that would help us make our surroundings both qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for its residents.

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