Science and Technology topic

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 23.03.2020
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 1 651 slov
Počet zobrazení: 67
Tlačení: 7
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Science and Technology topic 

Science is systemized knowledge gained through experimentation, observation and study. There exist many fields of science - natural, social, environmental and so on. Many discoveries were made through observation. Some discoveries lead to invention of objects, processes and techniques.

The technology (as a product of science) is the application of knowledge to achieve a practical result. Society depends on technology and technology exists thanks to the society. The invention of printing had a great effect on European society. It contributed to expansion of learning and allowed for the faster propagation of new ideas. This development paved the way for the scientific revolution. Technological development changes society.

The industrial revolution, which started in the 18th century in England, brought a major technological change. The major achievement was the invention of steam power by James Watt and steam locomotive invented by George Stephenson. Since then, technology has become a part of our everyday life.

Society has made enormous progress in transport, medicine, and biology and information technology. We realise this when we compare how people travelled in 18th century and now.

In the past people travelled by horses or on foot. It cost no money but it was not very comfortable. They wanted to improve travelling and made it more comfortable and faster. Because of this scientists thought up and constructed the first train. It was made in England. Then the first car. The progress in car industry was incredible. Later, planes were constructed. In the middle of 20th century people were able to leave the planet for the first time and explore the space.

Scientific discoveries took place in the field of chemistry in the modern age. The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented a safer way of using nitro-glycerine in the production of dynamite. Dimitri Mendeleev composed his periodic table of elements. The French biologist Louis Pasteur was able to link microorganisms with diseases. He also devised on of the most important methods in preventive medicine. Paster invented the process known as pasteurisation, to help prevent the spread of disease through milk and other foods.

Perhaps, the most prominent theory in all of science has been the theory of evolution by natural selection put by Charles Darwin. Gregor Mendel provided the beginnings of the study of genetics. The invention which influenced us the most is electricity. Thomas Alva Edison is inventor of electric light bulb, the phonograph, telephone transmitter. Nikola Tesla, inventor of telegraphy and alternating current… All appliances are based on electricity which we used at home – cooker robots, fridge, washing machine, TV, video, computer, radio…

Great progress has been made in the field of medicine. Science and technology has helped ease the pain of certain types of diseases. It has even cured and prevented many diseases that were considered incurable in the past. It helps prolong the life of people and makes the life of the handicapped easier. Nowadays, it is possible for doctors to help in surgeries that are taking place in another part of country. Moreover, it is possible in vitro fertilization, when the woman has a problem with getting pregnant…

To compare the life in the past and today, we can see a big difference in communication. During the last decades, we have witnessed the biggest advance in information and communication technology, especially wireless technology. While in the past, people used for communication a carrier - pigeon, letters and later telegraph, today we are on higher level. We use telephones, cell phones, and internet. The amount of users of mobile phones and internet has rapidly increased. Mobile phones have become either a symbol of comfortable, quick communication or a fashion, mainly among young people. The cell phones, the music player, the camera and the palm computer are being put together into one little gadget, a smartphone.

The internet is a system that allows computer users around the world to send messages and information to each other.


  • Let you access a lot of information communicate by e-mail or many other services.
  • Can do many jobs very quickly.
  • Make it possible to work from home.

A lot of boring and complicated jobs can now be done by computers, machines and robots instead of people. Some manufacturing processes and services are now fully automated. This may lead to high unemployment as more jobs are done by machines or computers.

A knowledge of atomic and nuclear physics is essential to nuclear engineers, who deal with nuclear reactors. It should be noted that atomic and nuclear physics is very extensive branch of science. Nuclear reactor physics belongs to an applied physics. Reactor physics, particle physics or other branches of modern physics have common fundamentals. Atomic and nuclear physics describes fundamental particles (i.e. electrons, protons, and neutrons), their structure, properties and behaviour.

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents (protons and neutrons) and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation, but the modern nuclear physics contains also particle physics, which is taught in close association with nuclear physics. The nuclear physics has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine (Positron Emission Tomography, isotopes production, etc.) and magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

Weapons, Violence

The development of technology has also bad side it is the danger of misusing of technology.

It hasn´t happened yet, but one day it is almost certain that the terrorist group will get the necessary materials and technology to use weapons of mass destruction. A nuclear, chemical and biological terrorist attack will almost certainly happen. People are so worried of terrorist attacks because of this, that the victim of attack can become everybody. As we are afraid of terrorists, it is even possible, that our own government can become (or became) a secret terrorist organisation. Keeping people in fear through made-up attacks, diseases or contamination. Then they can easily manipulate people and force them to do something they will regret. And the biggest arsenals of weapons of mass destruction aren’t owned by private organisations, but by governments. Governments, or people on the top are what we should be afraid of, because all they need to do to end the world is to just press a button.

I would like to say something about two the most destructive weapons. The first is a nuclear weapon bomb enriched by plutonium or any other reactive nuclear material. It is called a dirty bomb, because it leaves a lot of by radiation contaminated area. The radiation after explosion influences the life on this place and health of people around it for many generations. Birth defects, organ failure, cancer are only few long-term symptoms of radiation exposure. Although the most powerful bomb is hydrogen bomb. It is based on hydrogen fusion what is the process the same as the process in the sun. It creates high temperature and enormous explosion. But on the contrary, the hydrogen bomb doesn’t contaminate the area.

We also know weapons which are used near everyday crimes like a gun and others, which are typical equipment for gangsters. Computer hacking involves some degree of infringement on the privacy of others and for decoding protecting systems of banks, firms or houses which they want to rob.

Civilization diseases

  • Are diseases which are fast spread in population. They usually shorten or limit the life of the affected.
  • Are caused by unhealthy food and modern lifestyles.
  • They include: cancer, obesity, high blood pressure, AIDS and also some epidemics (maybe from viruses which were created by people in laboratories)

Addiction on technology

The big addiction on technology we can see especially on young people (10-15 years). They are spending a lot of their free time playing computer games, which are usually full of violence and shooting, also on PlayStation, or watching TV. Because if you are overdoing anything, it can exploit your life. People need to find balance, computer games, watching TV is OK, but only when you can set a line. Only when you can tell yourself: “It is enough.”

I must admit that the biggest addiction is on the Internet, chatting on social networks. It is really hard to deny that it is dangerous for young people, when they chat with someone who they know just from the Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram… The disadvantage is that we can´t be sure if the person is telling the truth about their personalities (sex, age, hobbies). In my opinion we should chat with people who we know or prefer contact face to face.

Consumer society

Nowadays, the development of technology is really fast. People are so greedy. They want the newest, most modern, ASAP. It is everything about fashion, especially among young people.

I would like to point on the vicious - circle of debt. People don´t know how to save some money, they rather spend them (also on something what they don´t need, what they usually can´t afford) and also borrow money from bank on new things like TVs, notebooks, computers, smartphones, stereo… It is vicious circle because of when they pay back money, they borrow money again, or they don’t even thing about paying back the money...

By 2050 robots will probably be able to think like humans. They will be like our servants. But they will also carry out more complex tasks. For example, they will be able to work as doctors or teachers.

Others argue that computers can be only used in education for acquiring passive knowledge and for testing knowledge. However, many types of interactive software are developed nowadays and many universities have even started to offer online study programmes.

Some people think that the fantasies of science - fiction films will once come true. Humans won´t become extinct, but we will join together with advanced robots and make a new species that will live forever.

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