London

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Chlapec vazec
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 13.12.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
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London is the capital of the United Kingdom. It is the 9th largest city in the world - its population is about 10 million and the the extant of London is 1500 km2. London is situated on the river Thames in south-east England. It was founded as a Roman settlement. The great fire in 1666 destroyed almost all the city. The town got a new face during the huge reconstructions. Before Victoria became queen, London was rebuilt in Victorian style. The 20. century revised London with many cars and modern skyscrapers in The City, which reshape the appearance of the town. Nevertheless (=nicméně) many districts keep their individual faces. There are many places of interest. We can see them by walking or by various means of transport. London’s famous red double-deckers or black taxis go almost everywhere. For fast transport we can go by the Underground. London is also known for its typical red phone – boxes. It is the oldest underground in the world. There are also 3 airports in London. The most important are Heathrow and Gatwick.
 
London is divided into five districts:
WEST – END is large district with many parks like Regent‘s Park, Hyde Park or Kensington Gardens. In the Regent‘s Park today contains London ZOO and open-air theatre. Near the Regent‘s Park is Madame Tussaud‘s. In this museum are wax figurines of many famous personalities. In the Hyde Park is the Speakers Corner. Everyone can stand here and speaks about something, but anyone speak against the Queen.. Near the Hyde Park are Kensington Gardens. Here stands Albert Memorial and Kensington Palace. Here live the Prince and Princess of Wales. Near these parks stand Albert Hall, where are given many concerts and festivals. In West-end is also Harrod‘s. It‘s the shopping centre, where you can buy everything. It is the most famous shopping centre in the world. The next favourite places for shopping are the Oxford street, Regent street, Bond street and Piccadilly. Street Piccadilly leads to the Piccadilly Circus, where is in the middle the statue of Eros, the Greek god of love.

In the West-end is also Mayfair, the district of rich persons of London. In the Park Lane are the most expensive hotels in town.
Very small districts of London are Soho, Chinatown and Covent Garden. There are situated many restaurants, pubs and clubs. The nightlife is concentrated here. In Covent Garden is the Opera House, where is the seat of Royal Opera Company.

WESTMINSTER is the historical and political centre of London. Here is the Buckingham palace the seat of the Queen of Great Britain. Every day is here the famous ceremony named the Changing of the Guards.The guardsmen wear traditional uniform: big black helmet and red coat. In the front of palace stands the Victoria memorial. Near the palace is the Saint James‘ Park. It‘s the oldest park of the town. The next seat of goverment in Westminster is the Saint James‘ Palace. Between Buckingham and St. James‘ palaces is Green Park. In Wesminster is also the seat of Prime Minister in the Downing Street. The next famous street is Whitehall, where are situated the ministries. In Westminster we can also find The Houses of Parliament. They contain two houses: The House of Commons and The House of Lords. To The Houses belongs the Victoria Tower and there is located the Big Ben. It‘s the bell, which is named after the architect Sir Benjamin Hall. Next to The Houses of Parliament is Wesminster Abbey. Here are proceed all coronations - the first was here crowned William the Conqueror in 1066 and all famous kings and their wives are buried there. One of the most popular London‘s squares is Trafalgar square. It was named after Admiral Nelson’s victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson’s statue is situated on a high column standing in the middle of the square. The square with its typical pigeons is very popular place for various meetings and demonstrations. There is also the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square
THE CITY is the central financial district of London. There are situated banks, law courts, bussines and stock exchanges.The most popular bank is The Bank of England. The Saint Paul‘s Cathedral is situated there. This building was built by sir Christopher Wren after the great fire in 1666.

In the cathedral are buried many famous persons like Lord Nelson or the Duke of Wellington and the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Di was held there.. In the dome is also the Whispering Gallery. The City has also the big cultural centre. It‘s called Barbican centre and here are many shops, cinemas, theatres and galleries. Here is the seat of the big isurance company Lloyd‘s.

EAST – END is famous with one of the typical buildings of the London = the Tower of London. It was built in the 11. century by William the Conqueror. Tower was used like palace, prison and store of weapons. The Crown Jewels and the fisc of Great Britain are preserved there. The guards of the Tower are called Beefeaters. They wear traditional uniforms of royal guards of the 16. century. They guard the Tower and the Crown Jewels and tell visitors about the history. Next to it is the Tower Bridge one of the most famous symbols of London. It can open in the middle and let large ships to go throw. 
The proportion of cultural life is centralized in SOUTH BANK. Here are many music halls, cinemas, museums and galleries. The one of the most famous music halls is Royal Festival Hall. Near to it exploded many artistic departments like National Theatre, County Hall, Hayward‘s gallery and Old Vic.

Beyond the Thames towards the sea is Greenwich. Here is the Maritime Museum, the museum of ships and sea. One of the most popular ships here is the Cutty Sark, which imported the tea from Orient. In Greenwich is also the Observatory. Here leads the Zero Meridian, which divides the Earth to west and east hemisphere.
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