Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: vazec
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 14.12.2008
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 824 slov
Počet zobrazení: 4 180
Tlačení: 466
Uložení: 477
Prague, the capital of the Czech republic, is the most important political, economic and cultural centre of the country and the seat of the President and the other institution the Czech government, the Parliament and other instituion. More than one million people live here.

People have lived on the city’s area since the Stone Age. The Slovans arrived there during the 5th and 6th centuries. A legend connects the fonding of Prague with Princess Libuše. Prague was to become a city whose „fame would touche the stars“. Prague is now a beautiful city with rich history. It lies in the centre of Europe and that is one of the reasons why it became an important crossroads of the trade and culture. Influences from all parts of the world can be seen here. As early as in the the 10th century (966) Ibrahim Ibn Jacob, a Jewish merchant, wrote the first note about Prague; „it is built from stone and hime“, he wrote. At present, we can see here buildings built in various architectural styles.

The oldest buildings are built in the Romanesque style. They have thich stone walls and small narrow windows with round arches. The most important example of Romanesque style is the Basilica of St. George at Prague Castle. Rotundas were also built – there are three in the Prague, for example in Vyšehrad. Prague also had a Romanesque stone bridge – the Judith Bridge (1170), it was near the present Charles Bridge. Many Romanesque houses were in the Old Town.

The next style is called Gothic (1230 – 1530). The buildings were very high with much thinner walls, their arches were pointed. Reb vault is another of their characteristic features. Examples: St. Vitus’s Cathedral, Old Town Hall, Charles Bridge and its towers, Old – New Synagogue .

Many Gothic buildings were built especially during the reign of Charles IV. He called to Prague the best builders of his days: Matias of Arras, and after his death, Peter Parler. At Prague Castle, he built a new residence similar to the palace of the French kings. Charles IV. Also founded the New Town. Some large building, for example St. Vitus’s Cathedral  or the Church of Our Lady of Týn or Church of Our Lady of the Snows were finished much later ( if they were finished at all). Vladislav‘s Hall at Prague Castle, named after the king Vladislav Jagellon, was built in Gothic style, but its windows are in Renaissance style.

The best – known examples of Renessaince style are the Royal Summer Palace or Belveder (near Prague Castle) or Hvězda Summer Palace. During the reign of Emperor Rudolf II., who made Prague his pernament residence, the Spanish Hall and Rudolf‘s Gallery were built at Pargue Castle.

Very many churches and other buildings are from the period of Baroque and Rococo(1611 – 1780). Their characteristic features are monumentaly, curves in the forms of windows, wall or statues, onion – shaped tower roofs, large wall paintings. The most famous Baroque church is the St. Nicholas  Church in Malostranské náměstí (builtby Diezenhofer), another Baroque church is the Church of  St. Nicholas in the Old Town Square or St. James (near Kotva), Prague Loretta in Hradčany. Many places were built in Malá Strana (e.g. Valdštejn Palace). The finest Rococo building in Pague is Kinský Palace in the Old Town Square. (he was the shop of Herman Kafka – father of Franz Kafka). The style of Classicism (1780 – beginning 19th century) and Empire (1804 – 1850) were  inspired by Classical architecture – e.g. The Estates Theathre (there were in 1787 the world premierre of Mozart’s Don Giovanni, 1834 – the premierre of Josef Kajetán Tyl’s Fidlovačka, one of its songs became the Czech anthem). Pague’s best – known Empire style building is the Exhibition Hale U Hybernů.

The second half of the 19th century is the period of pseudo – historical styles. A pseudo – Romanesque  and pseudo – Gothic (or neo – Gothic) style is frequent (e.g. the western half of the St. Vitus’s Cathedral at the Castle or the Church of St. Ludmila in Vinohrady). Neo – Renaissance buildings are for example the National Theather, the Rudolfinum or the National Museum.
At the beginning of the 20th century , blocks of flats (e.g. in Pařížská street) and public buildings were built in Art Noveau (= secese)a very decorative style with flowers and leaves, geometrical ornaments. For example Prague Neunicipal House (=Obecný dům) beside the Powder Tower.
After the Art Noveau theer was a short period of Cubism. The most important of these buildings is the house At the Black Madonna. Anoher quite famous style  was architectual Functionalism (between the two wars). An outstanding example of Czech Constructivism is Trade Fair Palace in Holešovice.

In Prague of these days we can see all these historical monument and also new buildings for example very interesting Dancing House which is too called Ginger and Fred.
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Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

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