The Republic of Ireland

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: kaprik
Typ práce: Referát
Dátum: 06.07.2009
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 963 slov
Počet zobrazení: 7 071
Tlačení: 442
Uložení: 467
Praktické!
It covers an area of 70 285 sq km and the population is 3 550 448 inhabitants. The capital city is Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath, 915 516) and the main ethnic groups are: Irish (94 %) and English.

Geography
Ireland is one of the British Isles and lies in the Atlantic Ocean to the west of Great Britain. The greater part of Ireland is occupied by the Central Plain. The highest mountains are Macgillicuddy’s Reeks (Carrantuohill, 1 041 m) in the south-west and the Wicklow Mountains in the east. The main river of Ireland is the Shannon, which is an important source of hydroelectric power. Other rivers are e.g. the Boyne, the Barrow and the Suir. Irish lakes are called loughs - there are Lough Corrib, Lough Mask and Lough Conn.

Climate
The climate is typically insular [1], mild and wet, similar to that of UK. But Ireland is more  exposed [2] to the influence 3 of the Atlantic Ocean and warm Gulf Stream. Frequent rains most of the island earned 4 about beautiful green - consequently 5 Ireland is called ‘the Emerald isle’.

Political system
The head of this state is the President, elected by vote of the people every 7 years. The legislature is two chambers 6 The National Parliament - Oireachtas 7 - consist of two Houses. The executive is headed by the Prime Minister (the Taoiseach 8) and follows the British pattern. The Republic of Ireland is divided in 4 provinces and 26 counties. The Republic of Ireland is bilingual 9 state - it means that the first official language is Irish (Gaelic) and the second one is English. Irish was in common use till the 17th century but than the country was anglicised by force. The Irish language is used for names of institutions (for example - the Republic of Ireland = Poblacht na hÉireann), political parties (Ourselves Alone - Sinn Féin) and geographical names (Ireland = Érie). English is spoken as a first (or mother) language by a majority of population, but there are some characteristic features 10 of the Irish accent.
 
Important events in history
The forefathers of the present Irish nation were Gaels - the Celtic tribes who came to Ireland about 300 BC. They were organised into a great number of small kingdoms. Ireland (Hibernia in Latin) was visited by Roman but they conquered only England. In 5th Saint Patric - today’s the patron Saint of Ireland - was born in England but than taken to Ireland as a slave at the age of ten. Became a bishop somewhere in Europe, he returned to Ireland and in 432 he converted 11 the Irish to Christianity - he founded and built more than 50 churches. (According to legend, he also drove all snakes from Ireland - that is why there are no snakes there today). During 6th century Ireland became the home of a high civilisation and the era between the 6th and 10th century is called the ‘golden age’ of Irish Gaels. From year 800 they had to face 12 Scandinavian invasions. The Vikings began colonise the Irish coast and founded first Ireland’s towns (e.g. Dublin). The power of the Vikings was broken by national Irish hero Brian Boru in 1041 in battle at Clontarf.

Anglo-Normans invited Ireland in 1169. Than Ireland became to be ‘the first English colony’ in 1171 and that was the beginning of hundred-years Anglo-Irish conflict. The Irish - the Catholics - never accepted the Reformation and English kings - the Protestants - pursued a policy of expanding English rule 13 all over Ireland and confiscating land owned by the Irish. History between 1500 and 1922 is a long history resistance 14 to British rule and oppression 15 . There were at least nine major Irish rebellions especially in about a half of the 19th century. There was also a great famine between 1845-50 and in this time about 1 million Irish emigrated in the USA. In 1919-21 there was the Anglo-Irish war and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was founded. One year later, in 1922 the Irish Free State was established 16 - but 6 northern provinces stayed under the British authority. In 1948 there was new constitution and the name of state was changed to Republic of Ireland and withdrew 17 from the Commonwealth. Between 1969-72 there was the civil war between the Catholics and the Protestants. This religious and political problems continues up to now and make big problems.
 
·  Places of interest - významnější stavební památky, sídla ??!!!
 
·  Festivals - one of the biggest festivals is Saint Patric’s Days in March
® see Maturitní téma č.14 - British and American holidays and festivals
 
·  Literature ® see Maturitní téma č.5 - A brief survey of British literature
 
·  Guiness - the most famous stout 18 dark beer with a white head; it has been brewed in Dublin since
1759 in what is now one of the biggest brewery 19  in Europe; according to company
policy a glass should be filled 3/4 of the way to the top, left to rest for 45 seconds and
than topped up for the perfect drink

Economy

The Irish Republic is primarily an exporter of agricultural products. It is a grazing country where the livestock is breeding. The food-staff industry is connected with agriculture. There are the big reserves of peat 20 too. It is the greatest Irish source of energy (like a fuel for home fires). Other natural resources are e.g. zinc or coal.

[1] ostrovní
[2] vystavován
3 vliv
4 zasloužily se
5 proto
6 dvoukomorový
7 [erechtes]
8 [ti:šoch]
9 dvojjazyčný
10 rysy
11 přivedl, přiklonil (na křesťanství)
12 museli čelit
13 prováděli politiku prosazující anglická práva
14 odpor
15 utiskování, utlačování
16 uznán, založen, ustanoven
17 vystoupit
18 silný „ležák“
19 pivovar
20 rašelina
Oboduj prácu: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


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