Jobs and Employment

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: Dievča anika (25)
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 22.06.2011
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 2 104 slov
Počet zobrazení: 47 159
Tlačení: 1 134
Uložení: 986
Praktické!

Jobs and Employment
 
Talk about:
- Different kinds of jobs
- The ways how people can look for a job
- The reasons why people work
- The reasons why people change jobs
- Young people and their career:

- their job preferences
- their problems with their job
- your dream job as a child
- what do you want to do after you finish school

- Workaholics + dangerous jobs + jobs requiring special character traits

DIFFERENT KINDS OF JOBS
There are many kinds of jobs and professions. For example:
- a lawyer – právnik
- a dentist – zubár
- a doctor - doktor
- a nurse - sestrička
- an architect – architekt
- a priest – kňaz
- a vet – veterinár
- a police-officer / a policeman – policajt
- a librarian – knihovník
- an accountant – účtovník
- an engineer – inžinier
- a scientist – vedec
- a civil servant – štátny zamestnanec
- a designer – návrhár
- a hairdresser – kaderník, kaderníčka
- a mechanic – mechanik
- a car mechanic - automechanik
- a plumber – inštalatér
- a carpenter – tesár, stolár
- a builder – murár
- an electrician  - elektrikár
- a tailor / a dressmaker – krajčír, krajčírka
- a cleaner - upratovačka
- a fireman – požiarnik
- a farmer – poľnohospodár, farmár
- a miner – baník
- a shop assistant – predavač /v obchode/
- a broker – obchodník s cennými papiermi
- a secretary – sekretárka
- an artist – umelec
- a designer – návrhár
- a journalist - novinár

THE WAYS HOW PEOPLE CAN LOOK FOR A JOB
There are several ways how to find a job. You can:

- look at job advertisements in newspaper or on the internet
- ask your family, friends and acquaintances if they know about any job vacancies
- you can go to a jobcentre or to an employment office /employment agency/ and ask for help.

When you find a job advertisement, you have to contact your future employer either by post, telephone, or e-mail and find out if the position is still free. If it is, you have to apply for the job => you write a CV (a curriculum vitae – životopis), in which you include all the necessary information – your personal data and details about your education, qualifications, work experience and special skills (for example computer skills, driving licence …) Then you send your CV together with a cover letter – motivačný list (a letter that offers more detailed information about you) to your potential employer. After that you should prepare for the job-interview /= pohovor/.
 
If you are looking for a job, you should find out /zistiť/ these information:
- What is the working time? – Aký je pracovný čas?
- What is the salary ? – Aký je plat?
- What are my duties, responsibilities? – Aké sú moje povinnosti, zodpovednosti?
- When would you need me to start? – Kedy by ste potrebovali, aby som začal v práci?
 
If the job interview is successful, you should sign a contract of employment /= pracovná zmluva/.

THE REASONS WHY PEOPLE WORK:
People need to work because:
they need money to cover our living costs – to buy food, to pay for electricity, to pay bills... – potrebujú peniaze, aby pokryli náklady na živobytie – aby kúpili jedlo, zaplatili elektrinu, aby zaplatili účty
they want to make the most of their talent – chcú vyťažiť čo najviac zo svojho talentu
for some people their job can also be their hobby  - pre niektorých ľudí môže byť ich práca koníčkom
 
THE REASONS WHY PEOPLE CHANGE JOBS:
Some young people can study what they want and later they can choose their own career. But not all of them. Many people must do the job they are offered. If they aren’t satisfied they decide to change their job. The main reasons are:

- bad working conditions – zlé pracovné podmienky
- a bad salary – they don’t earn enough money – zlý plat – nezarábajú dosť peňazí
- an unpleasant and intolerant boss or colleagues – nepríjemný a netolerantný šéf alebo kolegovia
- long working hours – dlhá pracovná doba
- some people change their job when they get married because they move to a different place – a different town or a city – niektorí ľudia zmenia svoje zamestnanie, keď sa oženia /vydajú/, pretože sa musia presťahovať na iné miesto
- you can be made redundant – prepustený z nadbytočnosti
- you get a better job offer – dostaneš lepšiu pracovnú ponuku

YOUNG PEOPLE AND THEIR FUTURE JOB
Young people have their dreams and preferences about their future job. Young people usually decide between the ages 16 and 20 if they are going to do a manual job or a better paid job. Many young people nowadays want to become lawyers, economists, managers, computer analysts or doctors because these jobs are interesting and usually well-paid. But if you want to do any of these jobs, you have to have higher education – you must study at a university or a college. If they prefer manual jobs, they can become builders, carpenters, plumbers, shop assistants and so on.

The problems of young people with their job - young people may face /čeliť/ these problems when they start working:
-  they do not have enough experience and that’s why they can have problems to find a new job or to do their job well at the beginning
-  they have to learn how to get on with their work colleagues
-  sometimes they have to learn to work under pressure or in stressful conditions
My dream job as a child
When I was a child I wanted to be ……………… /an actor, an actress, a pop-singer, a sportsman, a doctor, a scientist, an astronaut…/.  When I grew up, my dream has changed because I realized it wasn’t realistic to become …………………  /napr. I am not talented enough to become a pop-singer/ an actor/ a sportsman. It is very demanding and difficult to study at the university to become a doctor…/
After I finish school I would like to:

- work as …………………. (a car mechanic, an electrician, a builder…) because I will have a qualification. I like this job and I would like to get some new experience.
- I wouldn’t like to find a permanent job immediately after I finish school because I would like to travel and see the world. Maybe I will find a job (for example as a builder, electrician…) for a short period of time abroad to earn some money (for example in the Czech republic, in England, in Germany, Denmark …) 

WORKAHOLICS:
Workaholic is a man who loves his job and he doesn’t want to do anything else /= nechce robiť nič iné). He works from morning till evening and he doesn’t have any free time which he could spend with his family and friends. I think that it is fine to have a good job and do it perfectly but it is also very important to do some hobbies or to go for a walk and enjoy sport activities.
 
DANGEROUS JOBS:/nebezpečné zamestnania/
I think that among the dangerous jobs we can count for example miners. It is a dangerous job because miners can easily get injured or even killed in a mine. I think that firemen,  policemen and rescue teams in the mountains have dangerous jobs too because they often have to risk their lives to save other people.
 
JOBS WHICH REQUIRE SPECIAL TALENT OR CHARACTER TRAITS /zamestnania, ktoré vyžadujú špeciálny talent alebo charakterové črty/:
For some jobs you need to have a special talent and determination. People like artists, photographers, designers and journalists can’t be successful if they are not talented. You need to have a good imagination, fantasy and a lot of creativity.
For some jobs, you need to have certain qualities or character traits. For example, if you want to become a doctor, you need:

- determination - odhodlanie
- patience – trpezlivosť
- flexibility – flexibilita, prispôsobivosť
- sensitivity – citlivosť
- you should be good at dealing with people – mal by si byť dobrý v zaobchádzaní s ľuďmi
- you should be prepared to work long hours and weekends – mal by si byť pripravený pracovať dlhé hodiny a víkendy

A teacher should be:
* friendly - priateľský
* good at dealing with people – dobrý v zaobchádzaní s ľuďmi
* good at explaining things – dobrý vo vysvetľovaní
* he/she should have a strong sense of fairness – mal/a by mať silný zmysel pre zodpovednosť
 
A computer analyst must be:
* good at using computers – dobrý v používaní počítačov
* think logically – myslieť logicky
* be flexible – byť flexibilný, prispôsobivý
 
Vocabulary:
job – práca /konkrétne zamestnanie/
work – práca
occupation – zamestnanie
a profession – profesia
working hours – pracovný čas, pracovná doba
regular working hours – pravidelná pracovná doba
re-qualification – rekvalifikácia
change - zmeniť
influence – ovplyvniť
a decision – rozhodnutie
grow up – vyrásť
dream – snívať, sen
realize – uvedomiť si
talented – talentovaný
enough – dosť
become – stať sa
demanding – náročné
difficult – ťažké, obtiažné
a way - spôsob
to look for – hľadať
to look for a job – hľadať si prácu
a vacancy – voľné pracovné miesto
a position – pozícia
staff – personal
promotion – povýšenie  /He got a promotion. = Bol povýšený./
to be promoted – byť povýšený
a job advertisement – pracovný inzerát
to apply for a job – požiadať o prácu
an applicant – žiadateľ
an application form – formulár žiadosti
curriculum vitae /CV/ - životopis
qualification – kvalifikácia
work experience – pracovná skúsenosť
reference – referencia, odporúčanie
cover letter – motivačný list
get / find work – dostať / nájsť si prácu
effective – efektívny
the most effective – najefektívnejší
several – viaceré
to look at – pozrieť sa na
an acquaintance – známy
a jobcentre – úrad práce
an employment office /an employment agency/ - pracovná agentúra
employment - zamestnanie
unemployed – nezamestnaný
an employer – zamestnávateľ
an employee – zamestnanec
unemployment benefit – podpora v nezamestnanosti
get the sack / be fired – byť vyhodený z práce
be out of job – byť bez práce
be made redundant – byť prepustený kvôli nadbytočnosti
to give up work – zanechať prácu
to retire – ísť do dôchodku
a retirement – dôchodok
a pension – penzia
be workaholic – byť workoholik
a boss – šéf
a director – riaditeľ
a manager – manažér
an administrator – administratívny pracovník
a clerk – úradník
a research worker – výskumný pracovník
a colleague – kolega
a workmate – spolupracovník
a partner – partner
do paperwork – robiť administratívnu prácu
do manual work – robiť manuálnu prácu
routine work – rutinná práca
a salary – plat, mzda
a payrise – zvýšenie platu
have to – musieť
future – budúci
either …or – buď … alebo
still – ešte stále
free - voľný
include – zahrnúť
necessary – nevyhnutný
personal data – osobné údaje
education – vzdelanie
special skills – špeciálne zručnosti
computer skills – počítačové zručnosti
a driving licence – vodičský preukaz
together – spolu
to offer – ponúknuť

after – po /after that – potom/
you should – mal by si
to prepare for – pripraviť sa (na niečo)
to influence – ovplyvniť
opinion – názor
in your opinion – podľa tvojho názoru
decide – rozhotnúť sa
a decision – rozhodnutie
future – budúci
between – medzi
a better paid job – lepšie platená práca
nowadays – v súčasnosti
higher education – vyššie vzdelanie
to want – chcieť
to prefer – preferovať, uprednostňovať
graduation – ukončenie školy
I would like to – chcel by som
work as – pracovať ako
immediately – okamžite
a permanent job – trvalá práca, trvalé zamestnanie
maybe – možno
travel – cestovať
a short period of time – krátky čas
abroad – v zahraničí
to earn – zarobiť
Germany – Nemecko
England – Anglicko
Denmark – Dánsko
may - môcť

face problems – čeliť problémom
well – dobre
at the beginning – na začiatku
get on with somebody – vychádzať s niekým
to work under pressure – pracovať pod tlakom
stressful conditions – stresové podmienky
spend time – stráviť čas
to change – zmeniť
to choose - vybrať
career – kariéra
to change – zmeniť, vymeniť
later – neskôr
all of them - všetci
satisfied – spokojný
a reason – príčina, dôvod
working conditions – pracovné podmienky
unpleasant – nepríjemný
intolerant – netolerantný
need – potrebovať
cover the living costs – pokryť výdavky na živobytie
pay bills – platiť účty
They want to make the most of their talent. – Chcú vyťažiť čo najviac zo svojho talentu.
consider – považovať
dangerous – nebezpečný
among – medzi
count – počítať
to get injured – byť zranený
kill – zabiť
a rescue team – záchranný tím
mountains – hory
save – zachrániť
determination – odhodlanie
character traits – charakterové črty, charakterové vlastnosti
successful – úspešný
a lot of - veľa
imagination – predstavivosť
creativity – tvorivosť, kreativita
fantasy – fantasia
certain – určité
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