Employment

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: ivka47
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 06.10.2011
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 951 slov
Počet zobrazení: 10 193
Tlačení: 443
Uložení: 457
Praktické!
EMPLOYMENT
A. Work is very important for people because they want to earn money to pay bills and also because they want to make career. If they are talented then their work is their hobby, for example singers. They also go to work for socializing, they have necessity to meet other people and talk to other people. Classification of jobs:
1.  Physical: these people need physical power, energy and stamina (výdrž). They are specialized, education is at low level, for example builder, carpenter, farmer, fireman, butcher, miner. Some need special skills, for example waiters, cookers, watch-makers, shoemakers, hairdressers, car mechanics – they work in services, industry and agriculture.
2.  Mental: they need high education, they are also better paid. And they don’t need physical skills, for example manager, officer (úradník), accountant, teacher, health care, judge, lawyer, politician.
From the point of sex there are typical jobs for men like truck driver, car mechanic, soldier, miner…and typical jobs for women like nurse, tailor, teacher – they have to be patient and reliable. Some women are in traditional jobs for men (police, army) and also men are in traditional women’s job (chef (kuchár), designer).
The choice of job can be influenced by 4 factors:
1.  Your skills, abilities, education, experience and hobby.
2.  By society: parents, relatives and also traditional jobs in family.
3.  Money: everybody wants well-paid job, but also your future can be influenced by that parents don’t have enough money to pay for school and university.
4.  School results.

B. When you are looking for a job you can get information about jobs from: advertisement, internet, job agency/job centre, radio, TV, local cable TV, leaflets or from other people.
When you want to apply for a job at first you have to write an application and you have to enclose your curriculum vitae. Then you are invited for an interview and you can be either accepted or refused. When you go for the interview it is important to be elegantly dressed, to have control of how you sit and what you do with your hands and also the eye contact is important. You should have prepared some questions for interviewer about the company. Curriculum vitae should contain your name, date of birth, place of birth, permanent address, nationality, marital status, telephone number, e-mail, education, work experience, other information, references, date and sign.

C. Working hours: when you have full-time job you usually work 8 hours a day. There are also part-time jobs when you work 3 hours a day or only during weekends or 2 days a week. Like that usually work: students, because they have to study, retired people, mothers with small children or handicapped people. There are fixed hours when day start and finish every day at the same time (teacher, in factories), flexible hours- it is up to you when you want to work (journalist, writer, actor, singer), and people work in shifts (in hospital, police, taxi driver).

Nowadays work isn’t as hard as it was in the past because we have new technologies, computers and robots which make our work instead of us. Work is more precise because of computers and new programs, work is easier in agriculture because they don’t have to work with animals but they have harvesters, tractors and other machines.

D.
Unemployment: in Slovakia the average unemployment rate is 17% but in the east of Slovakia it is about 30%. Before 1989 there was central planned economy (all companies belonged to the state). After 1989 there is market economy - it is based on private ownership: state companies were sold to foreign investors, private owners or they were changed to join stock company (people could buy shares). Most of them went bankrupt and they were closed because their owners wanted to be rich very quickly. Also companies which were based on export to Russia were closed. Because of these two facts there is such high unemployment rate in the east of Slovakia. In agriculture there were many

Co-operative farms (družstvá) which were owned by the state. But then land was returned back to original owners. Some started their own small farms, or some left their land to co-operative farm. The investments went extremely down. They didn’t have enough money to invest into new technology, livestock, chemicals, they couldn’t employ many people.
When people are unemployed they try to find job, go abroad for seasonal job, go abroad to work in a restaurant, health care or au-pair. People start they own business especially in services. Some stay at home and get money from state - they are on a dole (podpore).

There are different ways of being paid: 1. Salaries-once a month 2. Wage-every week 3. Fee-for example private doctors or private lawyers-they don’t get money from state but from people 4. Royalty-for example actors, singers, writers. You can be paid cash, by cheque or straight to your bank account. Income can be gross (all money that you earn) and net (that you really have). People have to pay insurance (social and health) and taxes.

E.
When people are unemployed they get dole from state. When your income is lower than the minimum wage,the state will pay you family credit or income benefit. Also people get family allowances for children until age of 18 or until they finish their study (26). Companies employ more men then women because they can be pregnant and then company will have to pay maternity allowances. Women will have to work till 60 and men till 62. When they get retired they get pension-the higher income, the higher pension.
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