Commonwealth of Nations

Cudzie jazyky » Angličtina

Autor: studak
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.01.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
Rozsah: 596 slov
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Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth is a free association of former British colonies and dominions. It should help to support democracy, world peace, human rights, racial equality, economic and social development.
The membership in the Commonwealth is voluntary and member countries have to accept some principles and values, like democratic rule, good governance, freedom of expression and protection of human rights.
All member countries recognize Elizabeth II as the Head of the Commonwealth, but her role is only symbolic.
The Commonwealth has its own flag – there is a golden globe on the blue background and 61 spears which forms the letter C – it should symbolizes the cooperation
Nowadays there are 54 member countries. There are member states in each of the 6 inhabited continents:
· Europe – Malta, Cyprus
· Africa – Ghana…
· America – Canada
· Australia, New Zealand
 
CANADA
· Lies in the north part of North America
· Second largest state in the world
· The total area is 9 million square km
· The capital city is Ottawa and Toronto is the biggest city
· The official languages are English and French
Population · 32 million people
·  the population density is only 3 inhabitant per square km
· Native people are called the First nations –  they form less than 5% of the population
o The Inuit = Eskimo
o The Indians
o The Métis – Indian + French
· Canada is multicultural country, friendly to immigrants – 200 000 people immigrate to Canada every year (mostly from Asia)
· The largest population of immigrants is in Toronto
 
Geography · 3 Territories
o The Yukon
o Nunavut (the youngest)
o North-West Territories
· 10 Provinces
o Quebec
o Ontario
o Manitoba
o British Columbia
o Prince Edward Island
o Newfoundland
o Saskatchewan
o Nova Scotia
o Alberta
o New Brunswick
· Big cities: Winnipeg, Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal, Edmonton
· Rivers:  Saint Lawrence River, Yukon, Mackenzie
· Lakes: in a Great Lakes Region – the lakes make boarder with USA – Lake Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario
· Mountains
The Flag · Red flag with a white square in its centre, with red maple Lea in the middle
· Officially inaugurated in 1965 (it appeared for the fist time)
Political system · Canada is British dominion since 1867
· Constitutional monarchy – the Queen is the head
· The representative of the Queen is General Governor of Canada
Symbols · Beaver, maple leaf, caribou
History · 1000 years ago the first Europeans discovered Canada
· At the end of 17th century  France and Britain established themselves as colonial powers
· In 1867
· In 1867 there was a Canadian Confederation - Canada became the British and  Province of Canada was divided into the new Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia also became provinces of Canada.
Economy · Primary resources are raw materials
· Canada exports forestry products, mineral resources, energy
· The main trading partners are USA and Japan
National Parks · 39 NP
· Niagara Falls
Transport · Trans Canada Highway – 7000 km long, it passes through all provinces, except Prince Edward Island
 
AUSTRALIA
· The official title is he Commonwealth of Australia
· The capital city Canberra
· The largest city is Sydney
· It’s a constitutional monarchy – the head is Queen Elizabeth II
· The population is about 20 mil.
· It’s divided into 6 states and 2 territories
· States:
o New South Wales (Sydney), Queensland (Brisbane), South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria (Melbourne), and Western Australia (Perth)
· Territories:
o  Northern Territory,  the Australian Capital Territory (Canberra)
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