London - the capital of Great Britain

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Autor: verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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London - the capital of Great Britain
 
INTRODUCTION
London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London is the set of the Queen, government, Parliament, the Monarch and the Supreme Court. It’s also the centre of fashion, political and cultural life. This city is situated in the Southern-East part of England. The river Thames flows through the city and the Meridian goes through the suburb Greenwich. About 8 million inhabitants live here. Many of them are immigrants from Jamaica, India and China - this minority lives in part of London called Soho.
 
TRANSPORT
We can travel here by the Underground ( = Tube ). It’s very quick and cheap. In central London Underground stations different colored lights and signs help passengers to find their way. London underground is the oldest in the world. The first train started to run there in 1863. Buses don’t go very fast in the centre, because there is always so much traffic. There are 2 sorts of bus stops: ordinary stops and request stops, where if you want to get on a bus, you must hold your hand out. Normal London buses are red double-deckers. But there are also other sorts of buses in London too. The red single-deckers are called Red Arrows - they have no conductor. And the Green Line buses which connect the City with many places. Another kind of transport are famous taxis also called Black cabs. London has 3 main airports: Heathrow, Gatwick and City Airport. There are also many ports: Dover.
The main railway stations in central London are Waterloo or Victoria.
 
HISTORY
The Celts settled this place as early at 800 B.C. Then London was occupied by Romans at about 55 B.C. London was founded as Londonium by the Romans in A.D. 43. Then the Romans left in the 5th century. Other important century is the 11th century - London became the capital of England. There were built St. Paul’s Cathedral, first stone bridge over the river Thames and other buildings. In 1565 the Royal exchanged was founded by Sir Thomas Gresham. In 1665 more then 7000 people died in plague epidemic and in 1666 the great fire in London destroyed almost whole city. Sir Christopher Wren was the main architect after the fire. He constructed 50 churches, public buildings and St. Paul’s Cathedral. During the 19th century London spread rapidly into suburbs. And during the Second World War was bombed. Now London is one of the most beautiful cities of the world.
There were the periods of Plantagenet, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover and Windsor.

PLACES OF INTEREST
 
TOWER OF LONDON - in the 11th century William the Conqueror began to build it. It was a Queen Palace and prison. And now the crown Jewels are stored here and Beefeaters guard them.
 
SAINT PAUL’S CATHEDRAL - is the second largest church in the world. It stands on the site of previous cathedral, which was damaged by the Great fire. The construction took 35 years and Sir Christopher Wren built it in the Baroque style. There is buried Ch. Wren and Admiral Nelson.
 
TOWER BRIDGE - is one of the most famous symbols of London. It was built in 1894. It can open in the middle and let large ships go through. The opening takes only 90 seconds.
 
THE HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT - is the seat of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It’s called the Palace of Westminster. It was built in 11th century by Edward the Confessor. After the Great fire rebuilt it Charles Barry in neo-gothic style. In the Second World War bombs damaged it, but now it’s repaired in the original form.
 
BIG BEN - is clock tower n the northern part of the Palace. It’s the bell named after Sir Benjamin Hall.
 
VICTORIA TOWER - is in the southern part of the Palace. It’s on the top of which the British flag flutters when the Parliament holds a meeting.
 
BUCKINGHAM PALACE - was built as a house for the Duke of Buckingham. It’s the permanent residence of the Queen of England today. The royal family lives in the Northern wing of the Palace. When the Queen is present, the Queens flag flutters on the Palace. The changing of the Guard takes place in front of the Buckingham Palace.
 
WESTMINSTER ABBEY - was built by Edward the Confessor in 1065. He was buried here. William the Conqueror was crowned here and then he have taken place here. The Coronation Chair can bee seen in the Confessor’s Chapel. There is the Poet’s Corner, where many famous actors, writers and musicians are buried. For example: Sir Walter Scott, William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Charles Dickens..
 
TRAFALGAR SQUARE - is the best-know square in London. It was built by plans of Charles Barry. It’s named after Admiral Nelson’s victory over Napoleon at the battle of Trafalgar. Nelson’s statue is situated on a high column, which is surrounded by 4 lions, which are made of bronze French guns. The square serves as meeting place for tourists, demonstrations and celebrations. On the northern side of the square there is the National Gallery.
 
DOWNING STREET - In house no. 10 has been the residence of the Prime Minister Tony Blair.
 
HYDE PARK - is the largest green park in London popular mainly by tourists. There is Speaker’s Corner - the place where somebody can stand on a box and can say everything, what he wants. But he mustn’t offend the royal family.
 
LONDON EYE - is about 135 metres high Russian wheel. It’s on the bank of river Thames and it’s the biggest wheel in the world.
 
PICCADILLY CIRCUS - is very busy and noisy place in London. In the centre there is a fountain with Statue of Eros. It’s Greek god of love.
 
MADAME TUSSAND’S MUSEUM - contains wax figures of many important people in the world - singers, actors, politicians. There is also Sherlock Holmes Museum.
 
BRITISH MUSEUM - includes the British Library with more than 11 million volumes of books. There is also museum, where are historical collections from Egypt, Asia and China.
 
THEATRE - National Theatre, the Oliver Theatre, Globe Theatre
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