British history

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Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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British history
British history begins many thousand years before Christ.

The Celts - The first people, who lived in Britain, were Celts. They came from central
Europe. They were divided into many tribes led by chiefs. Their priests were
called Druids. They used runes. They worshipped many gods and sacrificed
people and animals.
Gaels - Gaelic language ( 6th century BC )
Britons ( 3rd century BC )
Scots, Picts ( every tribe had its own language )

The Romans - In 43 AD roman occupation began. For the first time Romans came
before Christ - led by Julius Caesar. They massacred the Druids. The Celts were pushed up to the north and to the west and to prevent attacks the
Romans built Hadrian’s Wall. They built Londonium on the river Thames,
many roads and towns and also drainage systems. They introduced central
heating and glazed windows. They brought new culture, Latin language, food
and alphabet. There was a Celtic revival after the Romans left.

From the 5th century - it was a long period of invasions led by Angles, Jutes and Saxons. These people divided country into 7 kingdoms and each had its own king. In the 6th century Christiania was brought to England. Anglo-Saxons together with Latin brought Greek words but they used their old language - Old English. In the 8th century the Vikings came from Denmark and Scandinavia. They attacked these 7 kingdoms. 6 kingdoms were defeated and the 7th was resisted - this was the kingdom of Wessex with the king Alfred the Great.

The language of Vikings was Old Norse. After the death of Edward the  Confessor, Harold Godwin was elected the king. At the same year the invasion of Normandy started. It was the last invasion lead by the duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror, who defeated Harold Godwin at the Battle of Hastings and became the king.

1215 Magna Charta - the king John Lackland was forced to sign it. It was feudal document, which protected the rights of barons and merchants and lessened the power of the king.

15th century - here were two wars· The Hundred Year’s War - England claimed for the throne of France. French army was supported by the Czech king John of Luxemburg. English army at first won but Joan of Arc led the French army and defeated English. She was burned while Charles was crowned King. It began as a war between kings, but later on it became a war between two nations. The Wars of the Roses - it was a dynasty struggle between the House of York (white rose as a symbol ) and the House of Lancaster ( red rose ). Both houses claimed for the throne of England. Henry Tudor defeated Richard III. and became king Henry VII.

The Tudor dynasty - Henry VII. started this dynasty. He married Elizabeth of York.
Henry VIII. - established the Church of England
- very famous for his 6 wives
- had 3 children - Mary I. ( Bloody Mary ), Elizabeth I., Edward VI.
Elizabeth I. - golden age of British history = Elizabethan age
- England prospered in many ways
- supported protestant church and Shakespeare
  - Sir Francios Drake defeated Spanish armada - England became a sea
    power and the colonization began
  - trade flourished
The Stuart dynasty - James VI. of Scotland ( son of Mary Stuart ) became
James I. of England - was a protestant
- his mother was Mary queen of Scots ( Stuart ) - catholic
- he wasn’t loved either by the Catholics and the Protestants
- 1607 Jamestown colony was established in America
- 1620 Plymouth was established
Charles I. - the son of James  
- he wanted to rule absolutely and he was executed
- conflict with the parliament - it developed into a civil war
Oliver Cromwell - declared himself Lord Protector
- he established republic
- time of religious intolerance, theatres were closed
- old customs and traditions were forbidden
Charles II. - the son of Charles II., he lived in France in exile
- England invited him to return to Britain - theaters were open again
- he allowed freedom of worshoping - religious freedom

17th century - it was the beginning of political parties
Torries - supported the crown, the Church of England ( conservative party )
Whigs - they were against the royal power ( the liberal party )

18th century - time of industrial revolution
- Britain gained Canada and India, all French territories
- 1770: James Cook discovered Australia ( it became a prison colony )
- 13 colonies in America fought for their independence

Napoleonic wars - in 1805 at the battle of Trafalgar Admiral Nelson defeated
  France but he himself died
- France was defeated and Britain became a workshop of the world
- 1815: the battle of Waterloo 
- there was the Industrial Revolution
Inventions: steam engine - James Watt, steam locomotive - George Stevenson
- huge development of textile industry
- 2 new social classes: capitalists and workers

19th century - it was the Victorian era - Queen Victoria ruled
- some parts of Africa and Asia were added to empire
- England became the strongest industrial power

World War I. - the cause of the war was the assassination of arch duke Franz
  Ferdinand d’Este in Sarajevo
- Germany and Austria Hungary formed the Central Powers, joined by Turkey
  and Bulgaria
- France, Britain and Russia formed the Allies, joined by Italy, Romania, USA
- in 1918 the German army was defeated, the armistice was established
- in 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed

World War II. - in 1938 Munich pact was signed by: Neville Chamberlain GB, Benito
  Mussolini IT, Adolf Hitler GER, Eduard Daladier FR
- it allowed Germany to have the Sudetenland
- 1939: Germany invaded Poland
- then Britain and France declared war on Germany
- the Battle of Britain: a lot of Britain towns were destroyed by bombs
- many Czechs pilots joined Royal Air Force and helped their troops
- Hitler had to give up idea to invade Britain
- in 1945 German was defeated
- Japan capitulated after atomic bombs which had been dropped on
  Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945
- Germany was divided into 4 zones
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