Canada

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Autor: Dievča verca123
Typ práce: Maturita
Dátum: 28.03.2012
Jazyk: Angličtina
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Canada
Canada is situated in the North America. It’s the second largest country in the world. The capital is Ottawa. To Canada belong many islands on the north. Canada is bordered by:
- the USA - in the south
- the Pacific Ocean and Alaska - in the west
- the Artic Ocean - in the north
- the Atlantic Ocean - in the east

This country takes area about 9,9 million km2 and there live about 32,5 million people of various nations: Americans, English people, French people and Inuit. There are two official languages in Canada: English and French. The currency is Canadian dollar. Canada is a member of many international organizations - UN, NATO, G8, OECD and Commonwealth.
 
GEOGRAPHY
Canada is the country of lakes. The biggest lakes are Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. These are shared by the USA and Canada. Lakes, which belong only to Canada, are Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake and Lake Winnipeg.
The longest river is Mackenzie River. Other rivers are for example Lawrence River, Winnipeg, Saskatchewan or Yukon River.
 
Canada is divided into seven regions, each with a different climate and landscape: for example the Pacific Coast, the Cordillera, the Great Lakes or the Artic. One half of territory is composed of the Canadian Shield ( isle Hudson Bay ). The surface was formed by glaciers and that reason there are many valleys and fjords. The Canadian Artic Archipelago is the second biggest in the world and it includes for example Victorian Island or Banks Island. On the east of Canada are the Appalachian Mountains, on the north and west are Cordeliers. Near the Alaska there are St. Elias Mountains with the Canadian highest mountain Mount Logan.
Canada consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
· Provinces - Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince
Edward Island are called the merry time provinces.
 
HISTORY
The first people who arrived to Canada were probably from Asia. Icelandic Norsemen settled for a short time on the island of Newfoundland about 1000 years ago. In 1497 reached English John Cabot the coast of Newfoundland. In 1534 the discoverer Jacques Cartier occupied the large territory for France. In the next hundreds of years there was a heavy fight between France and Great Britain for domination of Canada. In 1763 became Canada a part of British Empire. In 1791 it was divided into two parts and in 1840 it was united. In 1867 became Canada the British Dominium but the full independence got it in 1931. In the 19th century Canada was remarked by the Gold Rush. People wanted to find some gold in the Yukon and Klondike River. A very few of these people became rich. Before the Second World War was Canada the backward agricultural state. But in the war began firms from USA to shift to Canada to lower costs ad time of production of weapons. And for that reason got Canada the modern industry and became one of the most advanced countries of the world.
 
POLITICAL SYSTEM
Canada is a constitutional monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy. It has two official languages and two systems of law: civil and common law. The head of the state is the Queen of Great Britain, who is represented by Governor.
The Canadian Parliament is composed by:

- Governor General - he represents the Queen
- the Senate - the Upper House ( 104 members )
- the House of Commons - it’s a major law - making body ( 295 members )
- the Cabinet - the real executive authority, under the direction of the Prime minister

- the Courts - judges

INDUSTRY
The Canadian economy belongs to the G7 ( = group of 7 leading industrialized countries ). Canada is rich in raw materials. It occupies the first place in the world in the mining of uranium and zinc. It produces the biggest number of the world’s sulphur and paper for newspapers. There are also other raw materials such as nickel, aluminium and natural gas. Canada is also one of the leading countries in agriculture.
Almost two-thirds of the Canadian work forces are employed in services industries. Canada is a member of NAFTA ( North American Free Trade Agreement ).
 
TOWNS
· CALGARY - it’s the city of the XV. Olympic Winter Games. Here is the Calgary
Stampede - world famous rodeo.
· EDMONTON - it’s Alberta’s capital. This town is known as a festival city. The
most popular festival is the Edmonton’s Klondike Days.
· MONTREAL - it’s the largest city in Quebec and also the second largest city in
Canada. The city is a mixture of French and English cultures. More than 80% of the population are French people. In the centre of Montreal is the Old
city with historical buildings and the modern skyscrapers surround this part.
The Mont - Royal Park is here and people go skiing and skating there.
· TORONTO - it’s the biggest city in Canada and the capital of Ontario. This city is famous for the high number of cultures. We can see there Greek quarter,
China Town, Jewish quarter or Indian quarter. Every quarter has its own
restaurants and shops. And in every quarter are held different customs.
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